Intracranial venous malformations are abnormally enlarged veins in brain. Venous malformations are a type of blood vessel abnormality in the brain or spinal cord.
AVM can occur anywhere in the body, but brain and spinal AVMs present substantial risks when they bleed. Because the brain and its blood vessels are formed together during embryological development, abnormal blood-vessel formation is often associated with abnormal brain tissue. Little is known about the etiology of brain AVMs. The cause of brain AVMs is debated, although it is likely multifactorial; with both genetic manipulation and angiogenic stimulation (the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels) appearing to play roles during AVM development. Some believe that AVMs develop in utero, while others advocate an angiopathic reaction, following either a cerebral ischemic or hemorrhagic event (sub-types of stroke) as a primary factor in their development
The most important goal AVM treatment is to prevent internal bleeding from rupture, because which can lead to stroke / death. However, seizure control or stabilization of progressive neurological deficits are occasionally treatment goals. Though medication may be prescribed, it does not cure AVMs but medications are used to control pain and seizures. The management options for brain AVMs include observation or various treatment techniques, such as endovascular embolization, microsurgical techniques and stereotactic radiotherapy used alone or in combination with varying degrees of treatment-associated morbidity and mortality.