Lichen sclerosus is an uncommon condition that creates patchy, white skin that's thinner than normal. Lichen sclerosus can affect skin anywhere on your body. But it most often involves skin of the vulva, foreskin of the penis or skin around the anus. IInflammation and altered fibroblast function in the papillary dermis leads to fibrosis of the upper dermis. Genital skin and mucosa are affected most frequently, but extragenital lichen sclerosus does occur, and even rare oral presentations are reported.
The role that hypoxia and ischemia have in the initial cellular and vascular damage is supported by the finding of increased glut-1 and decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in affected skin. The estimated prevalence of the disease is 1:300–1:1,000 and it is primarily seen in postmenopausal women, but also men and children can be affected. In men, LS occurs mainly between the ages of 30 and 50 years. One of the main signs in males is phimosis, which can cause dyspareunia, and meatal involvement leading to dysuria can also occur.