Movement disorders are a group of diseases and syndromes affecting the ability to produce and control movement. Sensory information provides critical input on the current position and velocity of body parts, and spinal nerve cells (neurons) help prevent opposing muscle groups from contracting at the same time. To understand how movement disorders occur, it is helpful to consider a normal voluntary movement, such as reaching to touch a nearby object with the right index finger.
The prevalence of all common categories of movement disorders was 28.0% (95% CI 25.9-30.1). Proportions in men (27.6% [95% CI 24.5-30.7]) and women (28.3% [25.5-31.2]) were closely similar and sharply increased with age (from 18.5% [15.0-22.0] in 50-59-year olds to 51.3% [44.9-57.7] in 80-89-year olds).
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical technique which is used for the treatment of Movement disorders in which an electrode (an uninsulated wire) is placed in the subcortical (below the surface) structures of the brain. This electrode is connected to a stimulator (a battery) usually placed near the collarbone.
Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of Parkinsonian Disorders and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.