Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is especially troublesome in hospitals, prisons, and nursing homes, where patients with open wounds, invasive devices, and weakened immune systems are at greater risk of nosocomial infection. The rest of the respiratory tract, open wounds, intravenous catheters and the urinary tract are also potential sites for infection.
Statistics: The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in persons in Switzerland is relatively low, and there is a wide variation in prevalence (0%–21%) between different hospitals in Switzerland.The proportion of community-acquired S. aureus infections resistant to methicillin at Henry Ford Hospital rose from 3% in March 1980 to 38% in September 1981. Injection drug use was associated with the development of this infection. 10 years later, MRSA accounted for 47% of the isolates obtained from 101 IDUs with S. aureus infection at the same tertiary-care hospital.
Treatment of HA-MRSA frequently involves the use of vancomycin, often in combination with other antibiotics given by IV. CA-MRSA can often be treated on an outpatient basis with specific oral or topical antibiotics, but some serious CA-MRSA infections (for example, pneumonia) often require appropriate antibiotics by IV.
Research suggests that certain probiotic strains may help reduce susceptibility to active infection with MRSA. Reduced diversity and strength of the gut microflora leaves us vulnerable to opportunistic infections, while Lactobacillus species such as paracasei, and L. acidophilus, as well as Bifidobacteria animalis subsp lactis have been seen to offer a degree of protection against MRSA.