Typhus fevers are caused by the rickettsiae bacteria and transmitted by arthropod (e.g. flea, mite, tick) bites. When arthropods bite a victim, they leave the rickettsaie bacteria behind. Scratching the bite opens the skin to the bacteria, allowing them to enter the bloodstream. Within the blood stream, the bacteria grow and replicate. Rickettsiae microorganisms appear to exert their pathologic effects by adhering to and then invading the endothelial lining of the vasculature within the various organs affected. The adhesins appear to be outer membrane proteins that allow the rickettsia to be phagocytosed into the host cell.
In the Switzerland about 267 cases of Typhus fever are reported in each year. Almost 12% of the Switzerland population is suffering with Typhus fever, a disease caused by bacteria called Rickettsia typhi or bacteria called Rickettsia felis.Early treatment with antibiotics is effective and relapses are uncommon. Treatment is sometimes begun before laboratory confirmation, particularly when the symptoms are severe. esidual insecticide treatment of the clothing and hair is recommended for people who may have been exposed to infected lice.