alexa Synergistic Effect of Seaweed Manure and Bacillus sp. on Growth and Biochemical Constituents of Vigna radiata L | OMICS International
Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Research

Like us on:

Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Synergistic Effect of Seaweed Manure and Bacillus sp. on Growth and Biochemical Constituents of Vigna radiata L

Lakshmanan Kasi Elumalai* and Ramasamy Rengasamy

Center for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai - 600025

*Corresponding Author:
LK Elumalai
Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany
University of Madras Guindy Campus
Chennai - 600 025 India
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: February 08, 2012; Accepted date: June 12, 2012; Published date:June 15, 2012

Citation: Elumalai LK, Rengasamy R (2012) Synergistic Effect of Seaweed Manure and Bacillus sp. on Growth and Biochemical Constituents of Vigna radiata L. J Biofertil Biopestici 3:121. doi:10.4172/2155-6202.1000121

Copyright: © 2012 Elumalai LK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Research

Abstract

Seaweeds are one of the major marine renewable resources of the world. Seaweed fertilizers have often been more beneficial to the crop plants than the conventional chemical fertilizers. Seaweed meals provide nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and salts besides some readily available micro elements to the plants. The seaweeds are also known to contain plant growth regulators such as cytokinin and auxin in appreciable quantities. In the present study, different physico-chemical characteristics of Sargassum manure obtained from the Seaweed Natural and Alginate Products Ltd, Ranipet, India have been assessed. Studies on the effect of different concentrations of Sargassum manure on the photosynthetic pigment composition, biochemical make-up and plant growth regulators of Vigna radiata L. were made for the Sargassum manure itself besides the same in combination with a Bacillus sp. added to the soil as five different combinations (0.1 %). Those plants applied with the Sargassum manure and the bacterium demonstrated superior growth in relation to the plants supplied with the Sargassum manure alone. Therefore, the use of the bacterium along with the Sargassum manure appeared to make this combination an efficient eco- friendly alternative to the conventional chemical fertilizers.

Keywords

Sargassum manure; Bacillus; Growth; Biochemical constituents; Vigna radiata L.; Plant Growth Regulators

Introduction

Two thirds of today’s world population depends upon agriculture for livelihood. Sixty five percent of Indian population mostly depends on farming for livelihood. The abuse of pesticides or fungicides has been causing soil pollution besides exerting harmful effects in humans. Chemical fertilizers generally deteriorate soil quality there being disturb the homeostasis of the ecosystems, eventually leading to habitat loss.

Seaweeds constitute one of the important biotic components of the ocean and might serve as an alternative to inorganic fertilizers [1]. Seaweed fertilizers are often found to be more effective in promoting productivity rather than the chemical fertilizers [2]. Seaweed extract contains macro nutrients, trace elements, organic substances such as carbohydrate, amino acids and Plant Growth Regulators [3]. Use of organic manure in agriculture particularly, for seed treatment could be eco-friendly and cost effective. Seaweed extracts are marketed as fertilizer additives [4]. It has been reported that, seaweeds offer several benefits such as increased crop yield, improved growth, induced resistance to frost, fungal and insect resistance, reduced spider, aphid, nematode infestation and increased nutrient uptake from the soil [5]. Seaweed meals provide an approximately equivalent amount of N, less P, but more K and total salts and readily available micro elements compared to most animal manures [6]. Other than the macro and micro nutrients, seaweeds contain many plant growth regulators such as cytokinin, gibberellins and auxin [7-12]. The seaweed sludge does not degrade rapidly owing to the presence of certain complex substances like phenolic derivatives. The plant growth regulating and productive roles of a bacterium isolated from the organic manure was confirmed by culturing the same in a variety of media and their supernants were checked for the presence of bacterial secondary metabolites [13].

The aerobic spore forming Bacillus that constitutes the genus, Bacillus, majority of which are harmless saprophytes plays a significant role in the breakdown of complex polysaccharides and helps in the cycling of nutrients in nature. Bacillus that plays a major role in spore resistance, germination of seed apparently possesses enzymatic machinery that probably leads to entering into association with other organisms in the environment [14]. Owing to their genetic make-up, Bacillus spp. resist adverse conditions and can remain viable in soil for long periods and offer sustainable crop protection against pathogens.

More recently, it has been discovered that several microbes in the rhizhosphere produce Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) [15]. Bacilluspopulations also promote growth and health of crops by the action of plant hormones [16]. The strain, Bacillus subtilis AFI increased shoot length ranging between 4% and 15% and also raised the plant biomass by up to 15% [17]. Bacillus cereus QQ 308 produced growth enhancing substances in Chinese cabbage [18]. Bacillus sp. MRF produced IAA at a concentration of 3.71 μg / mL [19]. The rhizobacterial strains of Bacillus pumilus INR7 and Bacillus subtilis GBO3 when given as seed treatment and soil drenchment for cucumber were found to enhance plant growth gradually under green house conditions [20].

The main objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Sargassum manure in combination with a Bacillus sp. isolated from the manure on plant growth and its influence on the biochemical composition of Vigna radiata L. under green house conditions.

Materials and Methods

Collection of Sargassum manure.

The manure was collected after extraction of the alginate from Sargassum spp. from the Seaweed Natural and Alginate Products Ltd., Ranipet, India. The manure samples were stored in airtight containers and were later analyzed for different parameters.

The physico - chemical characteristics of Sargassum manure

The physico-chemical characters such as colour, odour, pH, macronutrients and micro elements were estimated by the methods as described by the American Public Health Association [21].

In the biochemical analysis total carbohydrate was estimated by the method as described by [22] total protein [23] total lipids [24] total phenol [25] and organic carbon by [26]. Humic acid was estimated by the method given by [27] Plant Growth Regulators [PGRs] such as, auxin, gibberellins and cytokinin were also measured [28].

Isolation of plant growth promoting bacteria

One gram of Sargassum manure was mixed with 10 mL sterile distilled nutrient agar plates. The plates were then incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The dominant bacterium from the culture plate was isolated and identified as a Bacillus sp.

Growth Study

The bacterial isolate was inoculated in nutrient broth and was incubated at 37°C for 24 h and growth was assessed by measuring the OD at 3h intervals at 600 nm.

Antagonistic activity of Bacillus sp. against phytopathogens

The test bacterium, Bacillus sp. was screened for the antagonistic activity against the phytopathogen, Rhizoctonia solani, on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) by dual culture technique.

Screening of the bacterial isolate for auxin production

The bacterial isolate was screened for IAA production [29] by inoculating it in the NB with and without tryptophan (1mg / mL) and incubated at 37°C for 7 days and analysed for auxin by following the method [30].

Sargassum manure and Bacillus sp.

Samples were prepared as follows: i] control, ii] unsterilized Sargassum manure, iii] sterilized Sargassum manure, iv] Sargassum manure inoculated with 25mL of 18 hr old Bacillus sp. v] Sterilized Sargassum manure inoculated with 25 mL of 18 h old Bacillus sp. and vi] 50 ml of 18 h old were chosen for the following study.

Test plants

The crop plant, Vigna radiata (Fabaceae) was chosen as the test plant for the present study. The seeds of the plant were procured from the local market. Seeds of uniform size, colour and weight were chosen for use in the experiments.

The experimental plants were raised in pots in a glass house. Six different experiments were conducted with four replicates. Seeds soaked in tap water overnight were used in further study. Experiments were conducted in earthen pots (15 cm dia., 13 cm depth and 14 cm height) filled with 700 g of the sterilized red soil.

Experimental

T1 – Control Plants without any set of treatment or application were irrigated with fifty mL of sterile water at 50 mL per day.

T2 Sargassum manure Fifty mL of 2% Sargassum manure (w/v) on 3rd, 6th, 9th day was applied.

T3 Autoclaved Sargassum manure - 50 mL of autoclaved 2% Sargassum manure (w/v) on 3rd, 6th, 9th day was applied.

T4 Sargassum manure with bacteria 50 mL of 2% non-autoclaved Sargassum manure (w/v) with Bacillus sp. twenty 5 mL of 18h old on 3rd, 6th, 9th day was applied.

T5 Sargassum manure autoclaved with bacterial culture Applied twenty five mL of 2 % autoclaved Sargassum manure (w/v) and Bacillus sp. twenty five mL of 18h old on 3rd, 6th, 9th day.

T6 - Bacterial culture of only fifty mL of 18 h old culture on Bacillus sp. on 3rd, 6th, 9th day was applied.

Observations were made on the test plants over a period of 10 days.

After the experiments, the plants were uprooted and analysed against the following morphometric parameters: shoot length (cm), root length (cm), fresh weight (g), dry weight (g), number of lateral roots (Nos.) and number of leaves (Nos). The plants were analyzed for the photosynthetic pigments Chl a, Chl b, total chlorophyll [31] and carotenoids [32]. The amounts of total carbohydrate, total protein, and total lipids were also estimated. The levels of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) such as, auxin, gibberellins and cytokinin were also measured [28].

Results

The manure looks brown in color with pH 9.0. Among the various nutrients, it has been found that the level of calcium (50 mg/g) was found to be maximum followed by nitrate (14 mg/g), magnesium (18.0 mg/g), sulphate (31.0 mg/g), potassium (8.0 mg/g) and total Kjeldhal nitrogen (54.64 mg/g) in the manure (Table1). Similarly, Organic substances like total carbohydrate (7.0 μg/mg) total protein (8.2 μg/ mg), total lipids (1.5 μg/mg), and total phenol (42 μg/mg) were also quantified. Besides humic acid (35.4 %), total organic carbon (13.3 μg/g) occurring at a C: N ratios (1:5) were also detected in the manure (Table 2).

S.No. Characters                                   Quality/Quantity
1 Appearance Brown
2 Odour Fermented Odour
3 pH
1g / 10mL
1g / 1000 mL

9.80
 9.05
4 Alkalinity Total (as CaCO3) mg/g 96
5 Calcium (as Ca) mg /g 50
6 Magnesium (as mg) mg/g 18
7 Sodium (as Na) mg/g 105
8 Potassium (as K) mg/g 8
9 Iron (as Fe) mg/g 2.12
10 Manganese (as Mn) mg/g  0
11 Free Ammonia (as NH3) mg/g 1.12
12 Nitrite (as NO2) mg/g 0.06
13 Nitrate (as NO3) mg/g 14
14 Chloride (as Cl) mg/g 90
15 Fluoride (as F) mg/g 0.36
16 Sulphate (as SO4) mg/g 31
17 Phosphate (as PO4)mg/g 1.71
18 Silica (as Si) mg/g 34.40
19 Total Kjeldhal Nitrogen mg (TKN) mg/g 52.64

Table 1: Physico-chemical characters of Sargassum manure.

S. No Substances µg / mg
1 Total carbohydrate 7.0
2 Total Protein 8.2
3 Total lipids 1.5
4 Humic acid (%) 35.4
5 Total carbon (%) dry weight* 13.3
6 C:N ratio 1:5
7 Total Phenol (μg/mg) 42.0

Table 2: Biochemical composition of Sargassum manure.

Growth promoters, auxin (135 μg/g), gibberellin (50 μg/g) and cytokinin (115 μg/g) were also recovered from the manure (Table 3).

S.No Plant Growth Regulators µg / mg of. F. wt
1 Auxin 135
2 Gibberellin 50
3 Cytokinin 115

Table 3: Plant Growth Regulators of Sargassum manure.

The predominant bacterium that occurred in association with the manure was identified as Bacillus sp. based on its morphological and biochemical characteristics (Table 4).

Test Results
Colony morphology Pale yellow, irregular, smooth surface
Gram’s staining Positive
Cell Shape Rod
Motility Motile
Catalase Postive
Oxidase Postive
Indole Production Postive
Methyl red Postive
Voges Proskauer Negative
Citrate Utilization Postive
Urease Postive
Triple Sugar Iron Glucose fermented
Nitrate Reduction Negative
Starch Hydrolysis Postive
Protease Postive

Table 4: Physicochemical characters of the Bacterial isolate.

The selected test plant, Vigna radiata L. was exposed to different combinations of manure and Bacillus sp. It was noted when treated with at 25 mL of 2% manure and 25 mL of 18h Bacillus sp. culture, the test plants have shown enhanced growth (Figure 1b) compared to control (Figure1a) in terms of the shoot length (20.3 cm) (Figure 2), root length (5.4 cm) (Figure 3), fresh weight (0.87 g) (Figure 4), dry weight (0.12 g) (Figure 5), number of roots (27) (Figure 6) and number of leaves (31) (Figure 7 and Table 5).

biofertilizers-biopesticides-Control-Treated

Figure 1a: Control - Treated with water.

biofertilizers-biopesticides-Sargassum-Manure

Figure 1b: Treated - Treated Sargassum Manure With Bacillus Sp Culture.

biofertilizers-biopesticides-Autoclaved-Sargassum-Manure

Figure 2: Effect of different proportions of Sargassum manure on shoot length of Vigna radiata L.
C- Control; SM – Sargassum Manure; ASM- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure; SM+BAC- Sargassum Manure + Bacterial culture; ASM+BAC- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; BAC- Bacterial culture only.

biofertilizers-biopesticides-Autoclaved-Sargassum

Figure 3: Effect of different proportions of Sargassum manure on root length of Vigna radiata L.
C- Control; SM – Sargassum Manure; ASM- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure; SM+BAC- Sargassum Manure + Bacterial culture; ASM+BAC- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; BAC- Bacterial culture only.

biofertilizers-biopesticides-proportions-Sargassum

Figure 4: Effect of different proportions of Sargassum manure on fresh weight of Vigna radiata L.
C- Control; SM – Sargassum Manure; ASM- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure; SM+BAC- Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; ASM+BAC- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; BAC- Bacterial culture only.

biofertilizers-biopesticides-Bacterial-culture

Figure 5: Effect of different proportions of Sargassum manure on dry weight of Vigna radiata L.
C- Control; SM – Sargassum Manure; ASM- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure; SM+BAC- Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; ASM+BAC- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; BAC- Bacterial culture only.

biofertilizers-biopesticides-different-proportions

Figure 6: Effect of different proportions of Sargassum manure on number of lateral roots of Vigna radiata L.
C- Control; SM – Sargassum Manure; ASM- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure; SM+BAC- Sargassum Manure + Bacterial culture; ASM+BAC- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; BAC- Bacterial culture only.

biofertilizers-biopesticides-Bacterial-culture

Figure 7: Effect of different proportions of Sargassum Manure on number of leaves of Vigna radiata L.
C- Control; SM – Sargassum Manure; ASM- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure; SM+BAC- Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; ASM+BAC- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; BAC- Bacterial culture only.

S. No Parameter Control Sargassum  anure  Sargassum  manure  + Bacillus sp. Autoclaved Sargassum  manure  Autoclaved Sargassum  manure 
+ Bacillus sp.
Bacillus sp.
       1   Shoot length (cm)   14.37 ± 0.9   16.37± 1.7   20.37 ± 1.23    15.12 ± 1.9         16.25 ± 1.34 15.75 ± 1.96
  2   Root length (cm)   4.37 ± 0.22   5.12± 0.32   5.42± 0.29   4.37 ± 0.29   4.37 ± 0.27   5.00 ±0.31
3   Number of roots   19 ± 0.9   21 ± 2.2   19 ± 1.99   12 ± 1.32   27 ± 2.11   17 ± 1.38
  4   Number of leaves   8.0 ± 0.34   31 ± 2.63   28 ± 2.36   6.0 ± 0.31   17 ± 2.63   16 ± 2.49
  5   Fresh weight(g)   0.57 ± 0.03   0.77 ± 0.04   0.87±0.06   0.65± 0.04   0.79 ± 0.05   0.66 ± 0.05
  6   Dry weight (g)   0.06 ± 3.4   0.08 ± 7.2   0.12±11.0   0.08±6.9   0.10 ± 10.4   0.08 ± 6.8

Table 5: Effect of Sargassum manure and Bacillus sp. on the growth of Vigna radiata L.

S. No parameters Control Sargassum manure Sargassum manure + Bacillus  sp. Autoclaved Sargassum  manure  Autoclaved Sargassum manure + Bacillus  sp. Bacillus sp.
1 Chlorophyll a (mg/g) 6.640 ±  0.22 4.667 ± 0.5 7.099 ± 0.83 6.285 ± 0.54 5.703 ±0.83 5.618 ± 0.43
2 Chlorophyll b  (mg/g) 1.496 ±  0.01 2.157 ± 0.03 2.860 ± 0.34 1.211 ± 0.4 2.126 ±0.34 2.749 ± 0.38
3 Total Chlorophyll (mg/ g) 8.138 ±  0.32 6.823 ± 0.71 9.958 ± 1.1 7.494 ± 0.89 7.828 ± 0.92 8.365 ± 0.95
4 Total Carbohydrate (mg/g) 1.0 ±  0.01 1.350 ± 0.02 2.450 ± 0.05 0.550 ± 0.01 0.450 ± 0.03 1.600 ±0.04
5 Total Protein (mg/g) 1.0 ± 0.02 1.604 ± 0.03 3.160 ± 0.19 0.644 ± 0.06 0.520 ± 0.05 1.940 ±0.08
6 Total Lipids (mg/g) 13.1 ±  0.9 6.570 ± 0.89 23.47 ± 2.17 9.820 ± 1.33 11.32 ±0.09 10.44 ± 1.65
7 Carotenoids (mg / g. f  wt) 0.0781 ± 4.2 0.129 ± 12.9 0.310 ± 29.03 0.1784 ±18.27 0.205 ±21.99 0.176±16.42

Table 6: Effect of Sargassum manure and Bacillus sp. on biochemical constituents of Vigna radiata L.

On fresh weight basis, the addition of manure and Bacillus sp. culture had significantly enhanced the content of chl a, chl b, total chl. and total carotenoids in the test plants. Maximum concentration of Chl a (7.099 mg/g), Chl b (2.860 mg/g), total Chl (9.95 mg/g) (Figure 8) and total carotenoids (0.309 mg/g) (Figure 9), total carbohydrate (2.45 mg/g) (Figure 10), total protein (3.16 mg/g) (Figure 11) and total lipids (23.47 mg/g) (Figure 12) were realized from Vigna radiata L. treated with 25 mL of 0.1% manure and 25 mL of 18h Bacillus sp. culture (Table 6). It was noticed than all this parameter were higher than7%, 47.64%, 18.28%, 59.19%, 68.36%, 44.19% and 77.42% respectively in relation to the control. Plant growth regulators such as auxin, gibberellin and cytokinin were assessed in Vigna radiata L. Maximun auxin (94.33 μg/g), gibberellin (257.71 μg/g) and cytokinin (97.0 μg/g) were observed in the plants treated with 25 mL of 2% manure and the 18h Bacillus sp culture and the increase over the control was found to be to the tune of 78.73%, 57.0% and 53.0% respectively (Figure 13 and Table 7).

biofertilizers-biopesticides-photosynthetic-pigments

Figure 8: Effect of different proportions of Sargassum manure on photosynthetic pigments of Vigna radiata L.
C- Control; SM – Sargassum Manure; ASM- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure; SM+BAC- Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; ASM+BAC- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; BAC- Bacterial culture only.

biofertilizers-biopesticides-Sargassum-Manure

Figure 9: Effect of different proportions of Sargassum manure on carotenoids of Vigna radiata L.
C- Control; SM – Sargassum Manure; ASM- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure; SM+BAC- Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; ASM+BAC- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; BAC- Bacterial culture only.

biofertilizers-biopesticides-carbohydrate

Figure 10: Effect of different proportions of Sargassum manure on total carbohydrate of Vigna radiata L.
C- Control; SM – Sargassum Manure; ASM- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure; SM+BAC- Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; ASM+BAC- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; BAC- Bacterial culture only.

biofertilizers-biopesticides-Manure-Bacterial

Figure 11: Effect of different proportions of Sargassum manure on total protein of Vigna radiata L.
C- Control; SM – Sargassum Manure; ASM- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure; SM+BAC- Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; ASM+BAC- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; BAC- Bacterial culture only.

biofertilizers-biopesticides-total-lipids

Figure 12: Effect of different proportions of Sargassum manure on total lipids of Vigna radiata L.
C- Control; SM – Sargassum Manure; ASM- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure; SM+BAC- Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; ASM+BAC- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; BAC- Bacterial culture only.

biofertilizers-biopesticides-Autoclaved-Sargassum

Figure 13: Effect of different proportions of Sargassum manure on Plant growth regulators of Vigna radiata L.
C- Control; SM – Sargassum Manure; ASM- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure; SM+BAC- Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; ASM+BAC- Autoclaved Sargassum Manure with Bacterial culture; BAC- Bacterial culture only.

S. No parameters Control Sargassum manure Sargassum manure +Bacillus sp. Autoclaved Sargassum manure Autoclaved Sargassum manure + Bacillus sp. Bacillus sp.
1 Auxin 20±0.8 14.65±1.5 94.33±9.44 14.54±1.7 19.03±1.9 24.91±2.6
2 Gibberellins 110.28±2.17 63.42±1.9 257.71± 9.34 94.85±4.28 114.28±4.8 86.57±3.1
3 Cytokinin 46.0±7.22 21.80±6.9 97 ± 23.84 40.2±10.11 46.4 ±11.8 31.80 ± 8.9

Table 7: Effect of Sargassum manure and Bacillus sp. on Plant Growth Regulators of Vigna radiata L.

Discussion

The brown seaweed, Sargassum is commercially exploited for its principal polysaccharide, alginate. It is extensively used as emulsifier, gelling agent in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries [33]. After extraction of alginate from seaweed, the waste is converted into Sargassum manure.

Seaweed manure application increases the availability of trace elements to the crop plants [4]. The beneficial effect of seaweeds on seed germination and plant growth were reported by [34,35]. Seaweed manure contains Fe, Cu, Zn, Co, Mo, Mn, Ni, vitamins and amino acids.

Application of the seaweed manure has raised the seed germination percentage even at lower concentration perhaps suggesting the presence of some plant growth promoting substances such as IAA and IBA, gibberellins (A and B) and cytokinin [36].

The growth enhancement potential of seaweed has been attributed to phenyl acetic acid [PAA] and micro and macro elements [37], vitamins and plant growth regulators such as gibberellins and cytokinin [39]. Maximum shoot length of 23.0 cm was observed in 10% Seaweed Liquid Fertilizer treated Solanum sp. seedlings [40]. The potential of Bacillus sp. to synthesis a wide range of metabolites with antibacterial and antifungal activity has been extensively studied in medicine and industry and are well known for their ability to control plant disease when applied as biological control agents [41-43]. Numerous Bacillus strains have been implicated in activities that suppress pest and pathogen or otherwise promote plant growth. A number of these strains have already been developed commercially as biological fungicides, insecticides, and nematicides or plant growth promoters and their use in agriculture has been thoroughly reviewed [44-47]. Improvement in plant health and productivity are mediated by three different biological mechanisms namely, antagonism of resistant pathogens, promotion of host nutrition and growth and stimulation of plant host defenses.

In the present study, Vigna radiata L., showed maximum shoot length of (20.37 cm) and root length [5.42 cm] when it was treated with 2% Sargassum manure and Bacillus sp. culture. The maximum shoot length (33.10 cm/plant)root length (2.10 cm/plant) fresh weight (6.38 g/plant) dry weight (2.75 g/plant), number of lateral roots (39 numbers/ plant) were observed at 20% in the case of Turbinaria decurrens plants. The lowest values were observed at 100% seaweed concentration [48].

In the present study, maximum fresh weight (0.87 g) and dry wt. (0.12 g) occurred with the plants treated with 2% Sargassum manure and Bacillus sp culture. Application of manure raised the contents of the photosynthetic pigments in Vigna radiata. Similar trends were observed in SLF treated crop plant, Vigna unigiculata, Phaseolus radiata [49], Cymposis tetragonaloba [50] and Zea mays [51]. The increase in the photosynthetic pigment contents were probably due to the presence of minerals such as Fe, Ni, Cu and Mg in the seaweeds [52] Iron, copper, and magnesium are essential elements which act as catalysts for the synthesis and efficient function of the chlorophyll [53]. The plant growth regulators from the seaweed may also have been responsible for the elevated synthesis of plant pigments [54]. Cytokinin inhibits degradation of chlorophyll, breakdown of protein molecules and aids in the increase of chl a, chl b in Sorghum bicolor. Seaweed extracts are known to promote seed germination and plant growth [55-57]. In the present study, elevated chl a and chl b contents were observed in the case of plants treated with manure. Maximum concentrations of chl a, chl b and total chlorophyll were observed in Vigna radiata L. treated with 25mL 0.1% of manure and 25 mL of Bacillus sp. culture .

The application of Seaweed Liquid Fertilizer (SLF) even at low concentration has been reported to increase the pigment content in Cucumber [58]. The enhanced biochemical constituents of the plant could be due to the increased availability of the essential elements available in the SLF [59].

Thus, the manure in combination with the culture of Bacillussp. has been found to be promising for its growth promoting ability. Hence, this simple application of eco-friendly seaweed fertilizer to crop plants is recommended to the growers for better harvest.

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the SNAP Natural Alginate Products Ltd, Ranipet, India for the financial support.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Recommended Conferences

  • International Conference on Agriculture, Food and Aqua
    November 22-23, 2018 Cape Town, South Africa
  • Annual Conference in Crop Science and Agriculture
    November 29-30, 2018 Bali, Indonesia
  •  International Conference on Food Science & Regulatory
    December 03-04, 2018 10 Plenary Forums - 1Event Chicago, USA

Article Usage

  • Total views: 12785
  • [From(publication date):
    June-2012 - Nov 14, 2018]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8870
  • PDF downloads : 3915
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri and Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

+1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version