There are significant ethical, public health, and human rights implications for failing to provide detainees and prisoners with adequate safety and health care, particularly with regard to infectious diseases such as HIV and AIDS. In other words, there is an ethical obligation to earmark resources, even when scarce, toward the study and care of prisoners. At the same time, however, how disease surveillance and treatment are carried out in this population-especially with regard to infectious diseases associated with stigmatized or illegal behaviors-raises a different set of ethical issues: For example, obtaining an accurate picture of disease prevalence and incidence rates in prisons as well as effectively treating prisoners may place prisoners at increased risk of physical and legal harms. Thus, both failing to advocate for the incarcerated as well as advocating in a poorly considered way are cause for concern. Additionally, misleading metaphors surrounding prisons and penal systems and the marginalization of prisoners and certain socioeconomic classes lead to a perpetuation of diseases such as HIV and AIDS throughout societies in general.Scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting novel research. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Scientific journals contain articles that are peer reviewed, to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. The publication of the results of research is an essential part of the scientific method. If they are describing experiments or calculations, they must supply enough details that an independent researcher could repeat the experiment or calculation to verify the results. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.
Last date updated on July, 2014