|Surgery is a medical speciality that uses manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury. The word surgery refers to the place where surgery is performed. Surgery is done to reduce problem or to improve body function. A journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles, reviews, editorials, short communications, letters, and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Journals contain articles that peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.