Adnexal tumors are growths that form on the organs and connective tissues around the uterus in women. Adnexal tumors are most often noncancerous (benign), but they can be cancerous (malignant).Adnexal tumors occur in the Ovaries, Fallopian tubes, Connective tissue around the ovaries or fallopian tubes. Diagnosis of adnexal tumors involves a careful physical exam, imaging tests and, sometimes, surgery. Treatment for adnexal tumors depends on the specific location and types of cells involved.
The pathophysiology is not well understood for most adnexal masses; however, some theories have been proposed. Functional cysts may be the result of variation in normal follicle formation. Mature cystic teratoma may be the result of abnormal germ cell proliferation. Endometriomas are thought to result from retrograde menstruation or coelomic metaplasia. The exact cause of epithelial neoplasms is unknown, but recent studies have suggested a complex series of molecular genetic changes is involved.
Adnexal cancer is the fourteenth most common cause of cancer death in the UK.Around 4,300 people died from kidney cancer in 2012 in the UK, that’s more than 11 people every day.Three-quarters of deaths from kidney cancer are in people aged 65 and over.Since the early-1970s, kidney cancer death rates in the UK have increased by half.In Europe, around 49,000 people were estimated to have died from kidney cancer in 2012. The UK mortality rate is 20th lowest in Europe for males and 12th highest for females.Worldwide, more than 143,000 people were estimated to have died from kidney cancer in 2012, with mortality rates varying across the world.