Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare obstetric emergency in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters the mother's blood stream via the placental bed of the uterus and trigger an allergic reaction. This reaction then results in cardiorespiratory (heart and lung) collapse and coagulopathy. Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a pregnancy complication that causes life-threatening conditions, such as heart failure. It can affect you, your baby, or both of you.
There is no particular treatment for amniotic liquid embolism, and introductory crisis administration is the same concerning some other reason for sudden maternal breakdown - with cardiovascular and respiratory revival and adjustment of the coagulopathy. Amniotic fluid embolism is caused by fetal antigens in the amniotic fluid stimulating a cascade of endogenous immune mediators, producing a reaction similar to anaphylaxis.Biochemical mediators found in the amniotic fluid are thought to trigger the main features of anaphylactic reaction with multisystem involvement.
Amniotic fluid embolism is a major obstetric catastrophe, with an overall mortality rate as high as 60–80%, and is the cause of 4–10% of maternal deaths. The exact pathology is not well defined, but it is clear that sufficient amniotic fluid has to enter the maternal circulation. The occurrence of AFE is not only a consequence of the mechanical respiratory obstruction caused by the absorbed fluid, but also a humoral effect causing pulmonary vasospasm, depression of myocardial contractility, coagulopathy and possibly anaphylaxis (type I hypersensitivity reaction)