A brain tumor or intracranial neoplasm occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain. There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors.Cancerous tumors can be divided into primary tumors that start within the brain, and secondary tumors that have spread from somewhere else, known as brain metastasis tumors. This article deals mainly with tumors that start within the brain. All types of brain tumors may produce symptoms that vary depending on the part of the brain involved
Symptoms as consequences of increased intracranial pressure (often first noticed) Large tumors or tumors with extensive peritumoral swelling (edema) inevitably lead to elevated intracranial pressure which translates clinically into headaches, vomiting (with or without nausea), altered state of consciousness (somnolence, coma), dilation of the pupil on the side of the lesion (anisocoria), papilledema (prominent optic disc at the funduscopic eye examination). However, even small tumors obstructing the passage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can also present such symptoms. Increased intracranial pressure may result in brain herniation (i.e. displacement) of certain parts of the brain, such as the cerebellar tonsils or the temporal uncus, resulting in lethal brainstem compression. In very young children, elevated intracranial pressure may cause an increase in the diameter of the skull and bulging of the fontanelles.
New techniques for imaging scans are being researched. These may help doctors better track how well treatment is working and watch for possible tumor recurrence or growth.Researchers are examining biomarkers to find better ways of using blood or other tests to determine the presence of a brain tumor before symptoms begin. Immunotherapy, also called biological response modifier (BRM) therapy, is designed to boost the body's natural defenses to fight the cancer. It uses materials either made by the body or in a laboratory to improve, target, or restore immune system function. Different methods are being studied for brain tumors, such as the use of dendritic cells or the use of vaccines aimed against a specific molecule on the surface of the tumor cells. Several methods are currently being tested in clinical trials. Many countries around the world mark Brain Cancer Awareness month in May. The aim is to raise awareness of the disease, educate people about its symptoms, raise funds for research and empower everyone affected.The brain is a complex part of the body; both benign (non-cancerous) and malignant (cancerous) tumours are of concern. In this short story, however, the focus is on malignant tumours. Although brain cancer is less common than many other cancers, on average in England, 11 people are diagnosed with brain cancer and 9 people die from brain cancer every day. In the last 32 years, brain cancer incidence rates have increased by 23% for men and 25% for women. In 2010, the incidence rate was 8 new cases per 100,000 men and 5 new cases per 100,000 women. This equates to nearly 2,300 newly diagnosed cases in men and just under 1,700 in women. The reasons for the increase in this relatively rare cancer are still under investigation.