Craniosynostosis is a condition in which one or more of the fibrous sutures in an infant skull prematurely fuses by turning into bone (ossification), thereby changing the growth pattern of the skull. Because the skull cannot expand perpendicular to the fused suture, it compensates by growing more in the direction parallel to the closed sutures. The fusion of this suture causes a certain change in the shape of the skull; a deformity of the skull. Sometimes the resulting growth pattern provides the necessary space for the growing brain, but results in an abnormal head shape and abnormal facial features.
There are four types of craniosynostosis:
Craniosynostosis is rare, affecting an estimated 1 in every 1,800 to 3,000 children. Three out of every four cases affect boys. Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis is the most common form of the condition, accounting for 80-95% of all cases.
Treating craniosynostosis usually involves surgery to separate the fused bones. If there's no underlying brain abnormality, the surgery allows baby’s brain adequate space to grow and develop. The primary goal in surgical intervention is to allow normal cranial vault development to occur. The few basic elements involved in the surgical intervention aimed at normalization of the cranial vault include: minimization of blood loss and the avoidance of the use of titanium plates in the fixation of the skull.
The ongoing researches in UK on Craniosynostosis include: Neurobehavioural assessment: a useful component of holistic care in single-suture craniosynostosis, Laryngotracheal anomalies in children with syndromic craniosynostosis undergoing tracheostomy, Craniosynostosis with ectopia lentis and a homozygous 20-base deletion in ADAMTSL4.