Xeroderma or xerodermia (also known as xerosis cutis), derived from the Greek words for "dry skin", is a condition involving the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with emollients or moisturizers. Xeroderma occurs most commonly on the scalp, lower legs, arms, hands, the knuckles, the sides of the abdomen, and thighs. Symptoms most associated with xeroderma are scaling (the visible peeling of the outer skin layer), itching, and skin cracking. Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is inflammation of the skin. It is characterized by itchy, erythematous, vesicular, weeping, and crusting patches. The term eczema is also commonly used to describe atopic dermatitis, also known as atopic eczema. In some languages, dermatitis and eczema are synonyms, while in other languages dermatitis implies an acute condition and eczema a chronic one. The cause of dermatitis is unclear. One possibility is a dysfunctional interplay between the immune system and skin. The term eczema is broadly applied to a range of persistent skin conditions. These include dryness and recurring skin rashes that are characterized by one or more of these symptoms: redness, skin swelling, itching and dryness, crusting, flaking, blistering, cracking, oozing, or bleeding. Areas of temporary skin discoloration may appear and are sometimes due to healed injuries. Scratching open a healing lesion may result in scarring and may enlarge the rash. Dermatitis symptoms vary with all different forms of the condition. They range from skin rashes to bumpy rashes or including blisters. Although every type of dermatitis has different symptoms, there are certain signs that are common for all of them, including redness of the skin, swelling, itching and skin lesions with sometimes oozing and scarring. Also, the area of the skin on which the symptoms appear tends to be different with every type of dermatitis, whether on the neck, wrist, forearm, thigh or ankle. Although the location may vary, the primary symptom of this condition is itchy skin.
Globally eczema affected approximately 230 million people as of 2010 (3.5% of the population). The lifetime clinician-recorded prevalence of eczema has been seen to peak in infancy, with female predominance of eczema presentations occurring during the reproductive period of 15–49 years. In the UK about 20% of children have the condition, while in the United States about 10% are affected. No outcomes found in UK. Dermatitis affected about 10% of U.S. workers in 2010, representing over 15 million workers with dermatitis. Prevalence rates were higher among females than among males, and among those with some college education or a college degree compared to those with a high school diploma or less. Workers employed in healthcare and social assistance industries and life, physical, and social science occupations had the highest rates of reported dermatitis. About 6% of dermatitis cases among U.S. workers were attributed to work by a healthcare professional, indicating that the prevalence rate of work-related dermatitis among workers was at least 0.6%. Although little data on the rates of eczema over time exists prior to the Second World War (1939–45), the rate of eczema has been found to have increased substantially in the latter half of the 20th Century, with eczema in school-aged children being found to increase between the late 1940s and 2000. In the developed world there has been rise in the rate of eczema over time.
The incidence and lifetime prevalence of eczema in England has been seen to increase in recent times. Treatment is typically with moisturizers and steroid creams. If these are not effective, creams based on calcineurin inhibitors may be used. The disease was estimated as of 2010 to affect 230 million people globally (3.5% of the population). While dermatitis is not life-threatening, a number of other illnesses have been linked to the condition, including osteoporosis, depression, and heart disease. The other treatment methods are by using: Moisturizers, Medications, Corticosteroids, Immunosuppressants: pimecrolimus and tacrolimus, Ultravioletlight therapy: Overexposure to ultraviolet light carries its own risks, particularly that of skin cancer, Light therapy using ultraviolet light has tentative support but the quality of the evidence is not very good. A number of different types of light may be used including UVA and UVB in some forms of treatment, light sensitive chemicals such as psoralen are also used. Alternative medicine. Eczema is cured using Immunosuppressants like ciclosporin, azathioprine, and methotrexate.