Pathophysiology: Oral cancer is any cancerous tissue in the mouth. It can present as a primary lesion in any of the tissues, by metastasis from a distant site of origin, or by extension from a neighboring anatomic structure, such as the nasal cavity.Oral or mouth cancer most commonly involves the tongue. It can also occur on the floor of the mouth, cheek lining, gums, lips, or palate (roof of the mouth). Most oral cancers look very similar under a microscope and are called squamous-cell carcinoma.Chewing betel, paan and Areca is known to be a strong risk factor for developing oral cancers.
Treatment: For mouth or oropharyngeal cancer, there is one type of treatment or a combination of treatments. There are Surgery Radiotherapy Chemotherapy Chemotherapy with radiotherapy (chemoradiation. Surgery alone cures some tumours, but others respond better to radiotherapy, or radiotherapy with chemotherapy or biological therapy. A Cochrane review in 2010 found that adding chemotherapy to surgery or radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer works better than just one of these treatments on their own.
Radiotherapy alone is used to treat some types of mouth and oropharyngeal cancers that have not spread. The treatment aims to kill off any cancer cells that might have been left behind. This lowers the risk of the cancer coming back.
Statistics: Oral cancer is the 16th most common cancer in the UK (2011), accounting for 2% of all new cases. In males, it is the 12th most common cancer (3% of the male total), whilst it is 16th in females (1%).In 2011, there were 6,767 new cases of oral cancer in the UK: 4,510 (67%) in men and 2,257 (33%) in women, giving a male:female ratio of around 20:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that there are 15 new oral cancer cases for every 100,000 males in the UK, and 7 for every 100,000 females.