Movement disorders are neurological conditions that affect the speed, fluency, quality, and ease of movement. Abnormal fluency or speed of movement (called dyskinesia) may involve excessive or involuntary movement (hyperkinesia) or slowed or absent voluntary movement (hypokinesia). Electromyography (EMG) is a diagnostic procedure to assess the health of muscles and the nerve cells that control them (motor neurons). Motor neurons transmit electrical signals that cause muscles to contract.
One hundred forty-seven patients were included (49.7% female). The mean age of the sample was 62.1 ± 11.7 years, the mean age at diagnosis was 55.8 ± 12.3 and the mean duration of the disease was 6.3 ± 5 years. A total of 49 (33.3%) patients were diagnosed with current depression. Depressed patients also scored higher in the NMSQuest even when depression/anxiety items were excluded.
Anticholinergics, including trihexyphenidyl (Artane) and benztropine (Benztrop MES, Cogentin), block acetylcholine receptors in the brain. Acetylcholine receptors are integral proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by opening a pathway in the membrane for ion diffusion across the cell membrane. Side effects include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, urinary retention and rapid heart rate.
Orthopedic surgery may be performed to correct a contracture. During contracture release surgery, the tendon of a contractured muscle is cut, the joint repositioned to a more normal angle, and a cast is applied. Regrowth of the tendon to this new length occurs over several weeks following surgery. After the cast is removed, physical therapy can help strengthen the muscles and improve range of motion.