Pathophysiology: The bacteria that cause TB can develop resistance to the antimicrobial drugs used to cure the disease. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is TB that does not respond to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most powerful anti-TB drugs. it is becoming increasingly difficult to treat MDR-TB. Treatment options are limited and expensive, recommended medicines are not always available, and patients experience many adverse effects from the drugs. In some cases even more severe drug-resistant TB may develop.
Statistics: Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new and relapse tuberculosis cases arising in a given year, expressed as the rate per 100,000 population. All forms of TB are included, including cases in people living with HIV. In United Kingdom the incidence of Tuberculosis reported from 2001-2005 is 15 cases, and from 2006-2011 is also reported as 15 cases and in 2015 the cases wetre reported as 13 cases.
Treatment: Treatment of tuberculosis starts with prevention. In countries where tuberculosis is common, vaccination with the BCG vaccine is often recommended. The BCG vaccine is not commonly used in the U.S. Preventing the spread of tuberculosis and other contagious diseases also includes covering the mouth and nose with an elbow or a tissue when sneezing or coughing. Treatment of tuberculosis also includes ensuring good nutrition and extra rest.
Major Research: Recent observational studies of the ef fectiveness of short treatment regimens for MDR-TB in Niger and Cameroon found that a 12-month regimen was ef fective and well-tolerated in patients not previously exposed to second-line drugs. At least 16 countries in Africa and Asia have introduced shorter regimens as part of trials or observational studies under operational research conditions, and WHO will reassess current guidance on their use in 2016.