Neuroblastoma is the most common childhood cancer diagnosed before the age of 1 year, and accounts for 10 to 15% of all cancer deaths in children. Some patients inherit a genetic predisposition to neuroblastoma due to germline mutations, whereas others develop sporadic disease that may result from either germline or somatic mutations. Neuroblastoma tumors are derived from embryonic cells that form the primitive neural crest and give rise to the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic nervous system.The charity was set up in April 2006 as the Simple Trust. The charity initially had broad aims, but the trustees decided to focus on helping children with neuroblastoma after learning about the potential to save children's lives from a parent, Yvonne Brown, whose son Jack was diagnosed with the disease.
Despite receiving pioneering treatment abroad that his parents had fundraised for, Jack Brown died in 2009. The charity has continued its work with families affected by neuroblastoma and by January 2013 had funded treatment for 21 children abroad. In 2011, the charity rebranded as the Neuroblastoma Children's Cancer Alliance UK, which is abbreviated to NCCA UK.Histopathologically, neuroblastoma can range in type from the most aggressive form, neuroblastoma, composed entirely of immature neural precursor cells, to ganglioneuroma, composed entirely of mature neural tissue.