Disease pathophysiology: Syphilis is a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The primary route of transmission is through sexual contact; it may also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth, resulting in congenital syphilis. Other human diseases caused by related Treponema pallidum include yaws (subspecies pertenue), pinta (subspecies carateum) and bejel (subspecies endemicum).
Disease Statistics: Male cases numbered at 1,385 and female ones at 700; male cases exceeded female ones in early and late symptomatic syphilis. Prefectures accounted for 47% of all cases; early symptomatic cases were outstanding also in UK prefectures. The ages of the cases were widely spread; there were many young adult cases of early symptomatic syphilis, with a peak at 25-29 years. Many asymptomatic cases may have been found by syphilis testing at examinations for other STIs, blood donation, and health check-up for the pregnant women, examinations before surgical operation, etc. Of 5,774,269 instances of blood donation during January-December 2001, there were 11,309 antibody positives (about 0.2%) by the Tp particle agglutination test (Japanese Red Cross Society).
There were particularly a large number of asymptomatic cases among the aged persons due to the finding in the tests at the time of entering the facilities for the aged. Treatment: The first choice for the treatment for syphilis is intramuscular benzathine penicillin G Doxycycline and tetracycline in alternative choice to those who are allergic to penicillin’s Resistance to macrolides, rifampin, and clindamycin is often present. Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, may be as effective as penicillin-based treatment. It is recommended that a treated person avoid sex until the sores are healed.