Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection that can spread throughout the body, affecting many organs. Typhoid fever is uncommon in the UK, with an estimated 500 cases occurring each year. Recent Epidemologic studies shown that in the year 2006, 546 cases of Typhoid fever were reported in United Kingdom. The prevalence rate was 0.9%. In the UK, two vaccines are available that can provide some protection against typhoid fever. These involve either having a single injection or taking three capsules over alternate days.
All pathogenic Salmonella species, when present in the gut are engulfed by phagocytic cells, which then pass them through the mucosa and present them to the macrophages in the lamina propria. Macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells then attract T cells and neutrophils with interleukin 8 (IL-8), causing inflammation and suppressing the infection. Researches are Safety and Immunogenicity of a Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Commonly Administered Vaccines after Co-administration.