alexa Acute liver failure | United-states | PDF | PPT| Case Reports | Symptoms | Treatment

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Acute Liver Failure

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  • Acute liver failure

     Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare syndrome defined by a rapid decline in hepatic function characterised by jaundice, coagulopathy (INR >1.5), and hepatic encephalopathy in patients with no evidence of prior liver disease.The interval from the onset of jaundice to the development of encephalopathy occurs within 24 to 26 weeks and may further classify ALF into categories based on hyperacute, acute, or subacute presentations.Although clinical jaundice is considered a defining feature of ALF, it may not always be present, particularly in hyperacute presentations. The term acute liver failure is preferred over fulminant hepatic failure or acute hepatic necrosis, although these terms have been used historically to classify hepatic failure.

    Typical symptoms

    Yellowing of your skin and eyeballs (jaundice), Pain in your upper right abdomen, Abdominal swelling, Nausea, Vomiting, A general sense of feeling unwell (malaise), Disorientation or confusion, Sleepiness.

  • Acute liver failure

     Therapeutic aspects

    Liver transplant. When acute liver failure can't be reversed, the only treatment may be a liver transplant. During a liver transplant, a surgeon removes your damaged liver and replaces it with a healthy liver from a donor.This care may include: Relieving pressure caused by excess fluid in the brain. Cerebral edema caused by acute liver failure can increase pressure on your brain. Medications can help reduce the fluid buildup in your brain. Screening for infections. Your medical team will take periodic samples of your blood and urine to be tested for infection. If your doctor suspects that you have an infection, you'll receive medications to treat the infection. Preventing severe bleeding. Your doctor can give you medications to reduce the risk of bleeding. If you lose a lot of blood, your doctor may perform tests to find the source of the blood loss, and you may require blood transfusions.

  • Acute liver failure

      Statistics

    Liver disease is the only major cause of death still increasing year-on-year Liver disease is the fifth ‘big killer’ in USA & UK, after heart, cancer, stroke and respiratory disease 16,087 people in the UK died from liver disease in 20082, a 4.5% increase since 2007. This includes 13,805 people in USA, 1,903 in Scotland and 379 in Northern Ireland Twice as many people now die from liver disease as in 19911 Liver disease kills more people than diabetes and road deaths combined. These statistics are not comprehensive, due to two major reasons for under recording: the stigma associated with liver disease and attempts to avoid distress to the bereaved, and attribution of liver deaths to other codes as liver disease frequently causes multiple organ dysfunction.

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