Barrett’s esophagus is also called columnar epithelium lined lower oesophagus (CELLO). It is caused due to abnormal changes occur within the cell of the lower portion of the esophagus. The main reason for Barrett,s esophagus is chronic acid exposure from reflex esophagus. Mostly this kind of condition found in 5-10% patients who diagnosed for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Although, many of the patients with barrett’s esophagus do not have symptoms.
Symptoms: Barrett’s esophagus does not cause any particular symptoms, however it is associated with below mentioned symptoms. • heartburn • dysphagia • hematemesis • pain under the sternum where the esophagus meets the stomach • unintentional weight loss because eating is painful
Treatment: For barrett’s esophagus doctors will approach different types of treatment that is depend up on the severity of disease those includes medicines, Endoscopic ablative therapies, Endoscopic mucosal resection, Surgery. Doctors prefer acid supressing medicine like proton pump inhibitor; an Endoscopic ablative therapy is performing by using different methods those are Photodynamic therapy, Radiofrequency ablation; In endoscopic mucosal resection, your doctor lifts the Barrett’s tissue, injects a solution underneath or applies suction to the tissue, and then cuts the tissue off. The doctor then removes the tissue with an endoscope; many of the doctors prefer surgery because this is having very less complications.
The male-to-female ratio for BE is approximately 2 : 1. White subjects have a 4–6 times higher incidence of BE compared to black subjects. Patients with chronic heart burn are 6–10 times more likely to have BE than those without heartburn. A high body mass index and a centripetal distribution of body fat also increased the risk of BE in multiple studies. A study of 733 unselected autopsies from USA, estimated the prevalence of BE to be 376 per 100,000 population. A retrospective analysis of a US rural white population in the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area (MESA), estimated the prevalence of endoscopically and histologically confirmed BE to be 261.8 per 100,000 persons. BE was diagnosed in 6.8% patients in a study of 961 US patients who were scheduled for a colonoscopy and had no prior history of an upper endoscopy. However, the study population comprised of predominantly white males. There is a lack of large population-based studies on the prevalence of BE in the United States. A Swedish study reported the prevalence of BE to be 1.6%, when both endoscopic and histological criteria were used to define BE. BE is seen in about 10–15% of the patients undergoing upper endoscopy for chronic GERD, and in 5.6% of those without chronic reflux symptoms. The frequency of long-segment BE is 3–5% and short-segment BE is 10–15% among patients with chronic GERD.