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Burkholderia cepacia disease is an aerobic gram negative bacillus organism found in various aquatic environments as well in human pathogen. First it was found to cause onion rot and in humans it is most well-known for its infection in cystic fibrosis patients along with chronic granulomatous disease patients and other patients with compromised immune systems.B cepacia is almost always a colonizing organism rather than an infecting organism, but it may be important when isolated from body fluids that are ordinarily sterile. The effects of B. cepacia infection on people may vary widely ranging from no symptoms at all to serious respiratory infections, especially in patients with cystic fibrosis.
There is a high mortality rate in patients infected with Burkholderia cepacia. Many develop what is known as cepacia syndrome. This is a fatal necrotizing pneumonia that is currently untreatable
Burkholderia cepacia can be resistant to many common antibiotics like clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, meropenem, minocycline, levofloxacin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.