Chickenpox is a highly contagious viral infection in which a person develops extremely itchy blisters all over the body and it is common childhood disease caused by a virus in the herpes family of viruses called the varicella virus. The varicella virus can remain in the body for decades and become active again in adults, causing herpes zoster (shingles). Shingles involves the occurrence of painful skin sores along the distribution of nerves across the trunk or face.
Sources of Chickenpox infection
Direct contact with skin sores or breathing in the varicella virus by being around someone with chickenpox who is coughing or sneezing.
A person with chickenpox can spread the virus for 1 to 2 days before the rash appears and until all the blisters have formed scabs.
There are several things that can be done at home to help relieve the symptoms and prevent skin infections. Calamine lotion and colloidal oatmeal baths may help relieve some of the itching. Keeping fingernails trimmed short may help prevent skin infections caused by scratching blisters.
In Latin America, the overall incidence of varicella in individuals younger than 15 years old reported by a meta-analysis is 42.9 cases every 1000 persons per year; children younger than 5 years old account for the most affected age group.10 Epidemiological studies suggest that transmission is more likely to occur in the early stages of the disease, from 48 hours before the onset of rash. The rate of attack among people who share a household ranges between 80% and 90%,11 which is a problem in closed communities, especially in susceptible patients and those with a risk of disseminated disease.