Colorectal cancers arise from dysplastic adenomatous polyps in the majority of cases. The early event is a mutation of APC (adenomatous polyposis gene), which was first discovered in individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). In addition to mutations, epigenetic events such as abnormal DNA methylation can also cause silencing of tumor suppressor genes or activation of oncogenes.
Disease statistics in US: 134,784 people in the United States were diagnosed with colorectal cancer, including 70,204 men and 64,580 women. 51,516 people in the United States died from colorectal cancer, including 26,866 men and 24,650 women.
Drugs that target specific defects that allow cancer cells to grow are available to people with advanced colon cancer, including bevacizumab (Avastin), cetuximab (Erbitux), panitumumab (Vectibix) and regorafenib (Stivarga). Targeted drugs can be given along with chemotherapy or alone. Eating dried plums positively affects bacteria in the gut, which helps lower risks of colon cancer. Radiation promotes colorectal cancer initiation and progression by inducing senescence-associated inflammatory responses.