Diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome is a serious condition caused by extremely high blood sugar levels. The condition most commonly occurs in people with type 2 diabetes. It's often triggered by illness or infection. As a result of diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome, your body tries to rid itself of the excess blood sugar by passing it into your urine. Left untreated, diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome can lead to life-threatening dehydration.
According to the US National Hospital Discharge Survey funded by the National Center for Health Statistics, there were 10,800 annual discharges for HNS in the United States from 1989 to 1991. HHS affects approximately 1 of 500 patients with DM. The overall incidence of HHS is less than 1 case per 1000 person-years, making it significantly less common than DKA. The death rate with this condition is as high as 40%.
Diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome may be triggered by: Illness or infection, not following a diabetes treatment plan or having an inadequate treatment plan, certain medications, such as water pills (diuretics) and sometimes undiagnosed diabetes results in diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome.
Diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome can take days or weeks to develop. Possible signs and symptoms include: Blood sugar level of 600 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or 33.3 milli moles per liter (mmol/L) or higher, Excessive thirst, Dry mouth, Increased urination, Warm, dry skin, Fever, Drowsiness, confusion, Hallucinations, Vision loss, Convulsions and Coma
Emergency treatment can correct diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome within hours. Treatment typically includes: Intravenous fluids to counter dehydration, Intravenous insulin to lower your blood sugar levels, Intravenous potassium, and occasionally sodium phosphate replacement to help the cells function correctly.