Eastern Equine Encephalitis | United States| PDF | PPT| Case Reports | Symptoms | Treatment

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Eastern Equine Encephalitis

  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare illness in humans, and only a few cases are reported in the United States each year. Most cases occur in the Atlantic and Gulf Coast states. Most persons infected with EEEV have no apparent illness. Severe cases of EEE (involving encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain) begin with the sudden onset of headache, high fever, chills, and vomiting. The illness may then progress into disorientation, seizures, or coma. patho : EEE is characterized by diffuse central nervous system (CNS) involvement. A large number of immunologically active cells enter the brain parenchyma and perivascular areas and mediate much of the damage. Infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages cause neuronal destruction, neuronophagia, focal necrosis, and spotty demyelination. Vascular inflammation with endothelial proliferation, small vessel thrombosis, and perivascular cuffing may also develop. Antigenic studies reveal that EEE primarily affects the perikaryon and dendrites of neurons, with minimal findings in glial cells. Occasionally, secondary glial proliferation and the formation of glial nodules occur. Cell death by apoptosis occurs primarily among the glial and inflammatory cells.

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