Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. The average EVD case fatality rate is around 50%.
Symptoms: A person infected with Ebola virus will typically develop a fever, a headache, joint and muscle pain, a sore throat, and intense muscle weakness. These symptoms start suddenly between 2 and 21 days after becoming infected. Diarrhoea, vomiting, a rash, stomach pain and impaired kidney and liver function follow.
Diagnosis: Alhough there are no approved specific therapies for Ebola virus disease, it is essential to make the diagnosis as early as possible, in order to initiate supportive measures before the development of irreversible shock and to institute infection control procedures. Whether Ebola virus disease is initially considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with fever and flu-like symptoms will vary markedly with the circumstances.