Hepatitis B: Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. It is a major global health problem. It can cause chronic infection and puts people at high risk of death from cirrhosis and liver cancer.Symptoms: Most people do not experience any symptoms during the acute infection phase. However, some people have acute illness with symptoms that last several weeks, including yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain.
Causes: Hepatitis B spreads in several ways. You can get it from sex with someone who's sick or by sharing a needle when using street drugs. The virus also can pass from a mother to her newborn child at birth or soon afterward. Most adults with hepatitis B get better, but a small percentage can't shake the disease and become carriers, which means they can spread it to others even when their own symptoms disappear.
Diagnosis A number of blood tests are available to diagnose and monitor people with hepatitis B. Laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis B infection focuses on the detection of the hepatitis B surface antigen HBsAg. Acute HBV infection is characterized by the presence of HBsAg and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to the core antigen, HBcAg. The presence of HBeAg indicates that the blood and body fluids of the infected individual are highly contagious.Treatment: care is aimed at maintaining comfort and adequate nutritional balance, including replacement of fluids lost from vomiting and diarrhoea.
statistics: hepatitis B cases occurred in 2013 is estimated to be 19,764 (Data for 2013 were unavailable for the District of Columbia, Rhode Island, and Wyoming).The number of acute cases of hepatitis B decreased by 9.5% during 2009–2013, from 3,371 reported cases to 3,050 reported cases; increases in Florida, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Tennessee and West Virginia occurred during this time period.