Meningococcal Disease is defined as an inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord. It's caused when the protective membranes around the brain and spinal cord known as the meninges become infected. There are actually several types of meningitis but bacterial and viral meningitis are the most common.
The meningococcus is carried, usually harmlessly, in the nose and throat of around 10% of the population ('carriers’), with higher carriage in some specific groups. The meningococcus is spread when an infected person (patient or carrier) talks, coughs or sneezes small droplets containing infectious agents into the air. The droplets in the air may be breathed in by those nearby.
Fewer than 700 cases of meningococcal disease were reported each year since 2010 in the United States. An estimated average 80 deaths from meningococcal disease occurred each year in the United States since 2010. The disease is most common in children younger than 5 years (particularly children younger than age 1 year), people age 16–21 years, and people age 65 years and older.
Intravenous fluids to treat shock and prevent organ damage medications such as noradrenaline (norepinephrine) for patients with very low blood pressure blood products such as platelets and fresh frozen plasma oxygen and ventilation by a machine to assist with breathing Patients who survive very severe cases of meningococcemia may have suffered severe necrosis (cell death) of skin and underlying tissue.
Major research on disease:
Meningococcal Serogroup B Bivalent rLP2086 Vaccine Elicits Broad and Robust Serum Bactericidal Responses in Healthy Adolescents.The meningococcus is also spread by close contact with nose or throat secretions, for example during deep kissing. However, only a very small number of people in close contact with carriers develop meningococcal disease.