Intellectual disability (ID), also called intellectual development disorder (IDD) or general learning disability, and formerly known as mental retardation (MR) is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning. It is defined by an IQ score below 70 in addition to deficits in two or more behaviors that affect every day, general living. Mental Retardation
Mental Retardation Sometimes disability is caused by abnormal genes inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or other reasons eg. Down syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome, Fragile X syndrome (common among boys), neurofibromatosis, congenital hypothyroidism. Intellectual disability can result when the fetus does not develop properly. A pregnant person who drinks alcohol (see fetal alcohol spectrum disorder) or gets an infection like rubella.
Diagnosis: The three criteria must be met for a diagnosis of intellectual disability: deficits in general mental abilities, significant limitations in one or more areas of adaptive behavior across multiple environments and evidence that the limitations became apparent in childhood or adolescence. In general, people with intellectual disability have an IQ below 70, but clinical discretion may be necessary for individuals who have a somewhat higher IQ but severe impairment in adaptive functioning.
An estimated 26% of homeless adults staying in shelters live with serious mental illness and an estimated 46% live with severe mental illness and/or substance use disorders. Approximately 20% of state prisoners and 21% of local jail prisoners have “a recent history” of a mental health condition. 70% of youth in juvenile justice systems have at least one mental health condition and at least 20% live with a serious mental illness.