Anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance is a major public health problem that threatens progress made in TB care and control worldwide. Drug resistance arises due to improper use of antibiotics in chemotherapy of drug-susceptible TB patients. This improper use is a result of a number of actions including, administration of improper treatment regimens and failure to ensure that patients complete the whole course of treatment. Essentially, drug resistance arises in areas with weak TB control programmes. A patient who develops active disease with a drug-resistant TB strain can transmit this form of TB to other individuals.
Death rate extrapolations for USA for Tuberculosis: 930 per year, 77 per month, 17 per week, 2 per day, 0 per hour, 0 per minute, 0 per second. Note: this automatic extrapolation calculation uses the deaths statistic: 930 reported deaths in USA 1999 (NVSR Sep 2001)
The principles of treatment for MDR-TB and for XDR-TB are the same. Treatment requires extensive chemotherapy for up to two years. Second-line drugs are more toxic than the standard anti-TB regimen and can cause a range of serious side-effects including hepatitis, depression, hallucinations, and deafness. Patients are often hospitalized for long periods, in isolation. In addition, second-line drugs are extremely expensive compared with the cost of drugs for standard TB treatment.
In France, research and development for tuberculosis is highly concentrated in the area of basic research. While the country’s contributions in this area are considerable, the French TB R&D community is fragmented and shies away from taking a multidisciplinary approach. Furthermore, a chronic lack of translational research prevents findings from basic research to be applied and deliver concrete outputs.