Neuroblastoma is a tumor of neuroblastic origin and is the most common extracranial solid childhood malignancies, and the third commonest childhood tumor after leukemia and brain malignancies. It accounts for ~15% of childhood cancer deaths . The average age at the time of diagnosis is about 1 to 2 years. In rare cases, neuroblastoma is detected by ultrasound even before birth. Nearly 90% of cases are diagnosed by age 5. Neuroblastoma is very rare in people over the age of 10 years.
In about 2 of 3 cases, the disease has already spread to the lymph nodes or to other parts of the body when it is diagnosed. The tumours typically occur in infants and very young children (mean age of presentation being ≈22 months) with 95% of cases diagnosed before the age of 10 years. Occasionally, they may be identified antenatally or immediately at birth . Macroscopically, they tend to be large grey tan colour, soft lesions with or without fibrous pseudocapsule hence some are well defined and some are infiltrative. Areas of necrosis, haemorrhage, and particularly calcification are very common.