Odontogenic infections, consisting primarily of dental caries and periodontal disease (gingivitis and periodontitis), are common and have local (eg, tooth loss) and, in some cases, systemic implications. In the United States, it is estimated that 25 percent of adults over the age of 60 have lost all their teeth (edentulism), approximately one-half from periodontal disease and one-half from dental caries. In addition to producing pain and discomfort, odontogenic infections can extend beyond natural barriers and result in potentially life-threatening complications, such as infections of the deep fascial spaces of the head and neck. In a report from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) involving 8366 noninstitutionalized adults in the United States from 1988 to 1991, approximately 90 percent were dentate but only 30 percent still retained all of their natural teeth.
These infections are typically polymicrobial, and anaerobic bacteria are thought to play a central etiologic role. Antibiotics are an important component in the treatment of odontogenic infections. The drugs most frequently recommended are penicillin (PEN), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC), and clindamycin (CLI)—despite reports of substantial resistance to CLI among oralpathogens. Researches are focusing on Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study on Pediatric Oral Lesions, Differential expression of TLR3 and TLR4 in keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT): A comparative immunohistochemical study in primary, recurrent, and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS)-associated lesions.