Yellow fever is caused by a virus that is spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. These mosquitoes thrive in and near human habitations where they breed in even the cleanest water. . Humans and monkeys are most commonly infected with the yellow fever virus. Mosquitoes transmit the virus back and forth between monkeys, humans or both. When a mosquito bites a human or a monkey infected with yellow fever, the virus enters the mosquito's bloodstream and circulates before settling in the salivary glands. When the infected mosquito bites another monkey or human, the virus then enters the host's bloodstream, where it may cause illness.
No antiviral medications have proved helpful in treating yellow fever. As a result, treatment consists primarily of supportive care in a hospital. This includes providing fluids and oxygen, maintaining adequate blood pressure, replacing blood loss, providing dialysis for kidney failure, and treating any other infections that develop.
Statistics As many as half of the patients who experience the second phase may die. In all, yellow fever kills 30,000 people globally each year. Yellow fever vaccination is typically performed only in areas where the disease is endemic.
The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that several hundred cases of yellow fever still occur each year, though because of underreporting the number could be much higher. Large populations remain unvaccinated and some health officials fear more instances of the disease. Vaccination, which is generally safe, and avoiding mosquito bites are the best preventive measures against yellow fever.To date, there is no treatment or cure for yellow fever.