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Professor of Oncology
Institute of Infection and Immunity
St George's, University of London
Faculty of Medicine
University of Crete
Clinical Microbiology and Virology
University Hospital Tor Vergata
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Virology a branch of science focuses on conventional fields of virology such as classification, structure infection and treatment and advanced scientific areas such as viral genomics, computational approaches in viral disease diagnosis etc. Over the past, the world witnessed major burdens like HIV, HPV and presently these organisms challenge the researchers with latest outbreaks like EBOLA and Zika virus. This indicates the world of virologists should be updated every day.
Virology: Current Research is an open access peer reviewed journal initiated by OMICS international aims to provide cutting-edge research findings in the field of virology. The journal offers broad coverage to the researchers those who are interested in virology and related fields. Virology: Current Research an avenue and provide a forum for the clinicians, virologists, and medical specialists, where innovative and intellectual discussions offer new age scientific developments in the field of Virology.
Virology: Current Research publishes peer reviewed content related virology, but not limited to viral genetics, Genomics, Computational Virology, Molecular Virology, Vaccine development, emerging diseases, infectious diseases, Immunology, Clinical Virology, Animal and plant viruses, Viral diseases and diagnosis, Laboratory medicine, etc. Journal editor invites original reports, expert opinions, reviews, communications and editorials for publication in the journal.
Authors are requested to submit their contributions at http://www.editorialmanager.com/virology or as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]
Virology is the branch of science dealing with viruses. It is a study focussing on life cycle of viruses and their ability to infect and exploit other cells (host organism). In general virology features about the virus physiology, viral pathogenesis, virus-host interactions, virus replication, virus immunity, virus adaptability, ecology, evolution, etc.
Virus is a very minute particle, parasitic in nature consisting of a nucleic acid molecule contained in a protein coat. Most widely virus are categorised into two classifications: DNA virus and RNA virus. Virus attacks the host cell and replicates the genetic material of host cell to produce offspring’s. Viruses cause very important and dreadful infectious disease such as common cold, diarrhoea, hepatitis, Dengue fever, influenza, rabies, yellow fever, polio, smallpox, AIDS, etc.
Measles is a viral contagious disease mostly affecting small children. It is caused by measles virus. It is also termed as rubeola and leads to full body rash. In 1980’s measles was responsible for the large number of deaths estimated to 2.6 million deaths per year. Now, this disease is easily preventable by vaccination.
Influenza virus is one of genera of Orthomyxoviruses. It belongs to RNA viruses’ family. Influenza virus is of 3 types: Influenza virus A, Influenza virus B, Influenza virus C. Influenza virus causes disease influenza (flu). Flu is a contagious disease, spreads very easily and attacks all age groups. It is a common viral infection leading to a deadly effect. This disease can be prevented partly by vaccination.
Ebola virus belongs to the genus Ebola virus. It is a deadly virus causing Ebola virus disease in humans and other mammals. It came under limelight recently during the year 2013-2015 causing approximately 11,300 human deaths in West Africa. Ebola Virus has a long term impact on host cell for years. Ebola virus disease results in ebola hemorrhagic fever, organ failure, severe bleeding and can lead to death.
Adenovirus belongs to the family of Adenoviridae. Adenoviruses are found in groups and are the largest group of nonenveloped viruses. Adenovirus mostly affects the tissue linings, respiratory system leading to pneumonia, bronchitis, urinary tract infections, etc.
Herpes simplex virus belongs to herpesvirus family. Herpes simplex virus is classified into 2 types: namely HSV-1 and HSV-2. This virus causes incurable disease herpes. HSV-1 is commonly known for cold sores whereas HSV-2 for genital herpes. Herpes simplex virus cannot be eradicated totally from the infected living being but can be treated to some extent partially.
Human Papilloma Virus causes Human Papilloma Virus infection. It is a sexually transmitted infection. It is believed that it is so common that approximately all sexually active men and women get infected with at some point of time in their life. People infected with HPV infections may not manifest any symptoms and infection get resolves itself with time in most of the cases. Human Papilloma Virus infection is incurable but can be prevented to large extent by vaccination.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus belongs to the Retroviridae family. HIV is a lentivirus, a subgroup of retrovirus. HIV virus causes HIV infection and if left untreated, over a time leads to the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV weakens the immune system by destroying white cells (CD4+ T cells). HIV infection doesn’t mean the AIDS disease. HIV cannot be eliminated completely from the human body. Complete cure for HIV is not available but it can be controlled with proper treatment. AIDS is a final stage where immune system is in a worse condition and unable to defend from getting attacked by different diseases. Correct and appropriate treatment to HIV at early stage can prevent from developing of AIDS disease to a larger extent.
AIDS stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV and AIDS are the two different scenarios. Living with HIV doesn’t mean that person has AIDS. AIDS is caused by HIV virus as a last stage of HIV infection. HIV virus can spread through various modes such as getting infected blood, semen, or vaginal fluids, unclean syringe, unclean needles, mother to baby during pregnancy, etc. Currently AIDS disease is incurable but preventable.
There are six families of animal viruses capable of directly causing cancers in either animals or humans. These viruses are generally termed as tumor viruses. These tumor Viruses replicate their machinery into host cells and lead to abnormalities causing tumors and different cancers. Viruses that can lead to human cancers are HPV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Oncovirus, etc.