alexa Visually Guided Human Adaptive Locomotion | OMICS International
ISSN: 2329-9096
International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

Like us on:

Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Visually Guided Human Adaptive Locomotion

Takahiro Higuchi*

Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan

*Corresponding Author:
Takahiro Higuchi
Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: July 27, 2013; Accepted Date: July 29, 2013; Published Date: July 31, 2013

Citation: Higuchi T (2013) Visually Guided Human Adaptive Locomotion. Int J Phys Med Rehabil 1:e101 doi: 10.4172/2329-9096.1000e101

Copyright: © 2013 Higuchi T. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

Locomotion, such as walking, running, or using an automobile or a wheelchair, is the behavior of moving one’s body toward a desired place. During locomotion, the critical role of the central nervous system (CNS) is not only to propel the body in the intended direction but also to maintain balance (i.e., not to fall). A challenging aspect of maintaining balance during locomotion is that the CNS accommodates changes in the constraints of spatial environment. When confronting an obstacle, for example, individuals need to control the displacement of the center of mass (COM) to either step over the obstacle, change direction, or even stop walking. Navigating through a narrow opening requires modification of locomotor patterns if the size of the opening is too small relative to the body. Locomotion while modifying the basic movement patterns to propel in response to environmental constraints is referred to as adaptive locomotion.

To maintain balance with these challenging aspects, the CNS takes both a reactive strategy to deal with unexpected perturbation and a preplanned strategy to avoid potential perturbation a priori. A pre-planned strategy is further divided into predictive and anticipatory strategies [1]. A predictive strategy refers to the maintenance of inter-segmental stability within the body or between the body and surface based on the estimation of expected perturbation generated by ongoing movements. The predictive strategy is therefore used to regulate locomotion on a local level (i.e., a step-by-step basis). In contrast, an anticipatory strategy refers to the maintenance of balance on a more global level (i.e., sustained over several steps). Locomotor patterns are modified on the basis of visual information about environmental properties at a distance to avoid a future perturbation altogether.

While vision plays an important role on all of the reactive, predictive, and anticipatory strategies, the anticipatory strategy is driven exclusively by vision. This is because vision provides the spatio-temporal information regarding a remote place very precisely. Understanding the anticipatory nature of the adaptive locomotion is, therefore, particularly helpful to understand how vision is used to adaptively control our locomotion.

Adaptive locomotor adjustments in response to environmental constraints, such as the existence of an obstacle are initiated when an obstacle is still in far space [2]. For example, when participants were asked to step over two obstacles located 1m apart, their foot placement to take off prior to the first obstacle was closer to the obstacle than when they were stepping over a single obstacle [3]. This is an understandable method in order to obtain a better take-off position prior to a second obstacle and suggests that the modification of limb movement for avoiding the second obstacle was already initiated before stepping over the first one.

To assist such anticipatory adjustments, visual information about far space is necessary. Analyses of spatio-temporal patterns of gaze behavior during adaptive locomotion under a variety of environments, as well as under a variety of forms of locomotion, have shown that fixations are generally directed toward far space. The basic rules are that we are looking at far space and that “we are moving as we are looking” [4]. More specifically, the majority of fixations are directed either toward a desired future path or toward an object of interest.

The inability to rely on anticipatory strategy to control adaptive locomotion with age can result in increased fall risk. Both older individuals who are at high risk of fall and some stroke patients who directed their fixation closer toward their lower limbs exhibited altered fixation patterns. These altered patterns are likely to indicate that they need on-line visual information about the environment surrounding the leading limb to ensure precise stepping. This, in turn, suggests that they have difficulty using the visual information regarding the environment in a feed-forward manner and modify their locomotor patterns in an anticipatory manner, which could cause perturbation when confronting an obstacle.


Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Relevant Topics

Article Usage

  • Total views: 11796
  • [From(publication date):
    August-2013 - Jul 22, 2018]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 8010
  • PDF downloads : 3786

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

+1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
Leave Your Message 24x7