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Annals of Infections and Antibiotics
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About the Journal

Annals of Infections and Antibiotics is an Open Access peer-reviewed journal dedicated to publishing cutting-edge research in the field of Antibiotic Resistance and Infectious Diseases. Infections such as swine flu, AIDS, hepatitis, meningitis, urinary tract infections, pulmonary infection, colon infection, and emerging viral diseases such as: SARS, swine flu, zika fever, and Ebola, are of special interest to the journal.

The Journal deals with all aspects of infection such as: infection control, preventive measures, advanced therapies, and treatments for infections. Important topics such as: development of antibiotic resistance and increased prescription of broad spectrum antibiotics over narrow spectrum antibiotics are of special interest. In addition, the Journal places special impetus on pathogenic agents such as HIV, rotavirus, herpes virus, human papilloma virus, Streptomyces species etc. “Infections and Antibiotics” holds a special position in the scholarly communication milieu by relaying expert knowledge to scholars and the general public.

“Annals of Infections and Antibiotics” is comprised of experienced Editorial Board, by including the best in this field. All manuscripts are subject to rigorous peer review by eminent scientists. The Journal encourages original research in the form of research articles, review articles, high quality Commentaries, and Perspectives aimed at putting forward the new theories and treatment regimens.

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OMICS International organizes 300+ conferences every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific societies and publishes 400+ scholarly open access journals which contains over 30000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members


Xenobiotics have been defined as chemicals to which an organism is exposed that are extrinsic to the normal metabolism of that organism. Without metabolism, many xenobiotics would reach toxic concentrations. Most metabolic activity inside the cell requires energy, cofactors, and enzymes in order to occur.

Xenobiotic research is an Open Access peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research works in the areas related to the field such as Xenobiotic metabolism, organochlorides and polychlorinated biphenyls. However, it is believed that microorganisms are capable of degrading almost all the different complex and resistant xenobiotics found on the earth.Many xenobiotics produce a variety of biological effects, which is used when they are characterized using bioassay. Before they can be registered for sale in most countries, xenobiotic pesticides must undergo extensive evaluation for risk factors, such as toxicity to humans, ecotoxicity, or persistence in the environment.

Xenobiotic research is a peer reviewed journal, serving the International Scientific Community. This Xenobiotic research Journal offers an Open Access platform to the authors to publish their research outcome.


Xenobiotic metabolism

Drug metabolism conjointly called xenobiotic metabolism is that the organic chemistry modification of pharmaceutical substances or xenobiotics severally by living organisms, sometimes through specialised protein systems. Drug metabolism typically converts lipotropic chemical compounds into additional pronto excreted hydrophilic product. the speed of metabolism determines the length and intensity of a drug's medicine action.


Pharmacodynamics are often broadly speaking outlined because the organic chemistry and physiological study of drug effects. These effects will embody those manifested at intervals mammals (including humans), microorganisms, or combos of organisms (e.g. infection). Pharmacodynamics places specific stress on dose-response relationships i.e. the connection between drug concentration and impact. pharmacodynamics is that the study of however a drug modifies AN organism, whereas materia medica is that the study of organism-mediated drug metabolism i.e. however the organism modifies a drug.

Cytochrome P450 oxidases

Human CYPs area unit primarily membrane-associated proteins situated either within the inner membrane of mitochondria or within the endoplasmic reticulum of cells. CYPs metabolise thousands of endogenous and exogenous chemicals. Some CYPs metabolise only 1 (or a really few) substrates, like CYP19 (aromatase), whereas others might metabolise multiple substrates. each of those characteristics account for his or her central importance in medication. hemoprotein P450 enzymes area unit gift in most tissues of the body, and play vital roles in endocrine synthesis and breakdown (including steroid hormone and androgen synthesis and metabolism), sterol synthesis, and fat-soluble vitamin metabolism. hemoprotein P450 enzymes additionally perform to metabolise probably cyanogenetic compounds, as well as medicine and merchandise of endogenous metabolism like animal pigment, in the main within the liver. CYPs area unit the foremost enzymes concerned in drug metabolism, accounting for regarding seventy fifth of the overall metabolism. Most medicine endure deactivation by CYPs, either directly or by expedited excretion from the body. Also, several substances area unit bioactivated by CYPs to make their active compounds.


Pharmacology is that the branch of drugs and biology involved with the study of drug action, wherever a drug are often loosely outlined as any synthetic, natural, or endogenous (from among body) molecule that exerts a organic chemistry and/or physiological result on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is employed as a term to embrace these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species). additional specifically, it's the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that have an effect on traditional or abnormal organic chemistry perform. If substances have medicative properties, they're thought of prescribed drugs.

Clinical medicine

Clinical medicine is that the basic science of medicine with an additional concentrate on the appliance of medical specialty principles and ways within the medical clinic and towards patient care and outcomes.


Toxicology is that the study of the adverse effects, molecular targets, and characterization of medicine or any chemical substance in excess (including those useful in lower doses).


Pharmacogenetics is that the study of familial genetic variations in drug metabolic pathways which may have an effect on individual responses to medicine, each in terms of therapeutic result additionally as adverse effects. The term genetic science is commonly used interchangeably with the term pharmacogenomics that additionally investigates the role of nonheritable and familial genetic variations in relevancy drug response and drug behavior through a scientific examination of genes, factor merchandise, and inter- and intra-individual variation in organic phenomenon and performance.


Automatism, in materia medica, refers to a bent to require a drug over and all over again, forgetting whenever that one has already taken the dose. this will cause a accumulative dose. a selected example is barbiturates that were once ordinarily used as hypnotic (sleep inducing) medicine. Among the present hypnotics, benzodiazepines, particularly benzodiazepine would possibly show marked response, presumably through their intrinsic amnesia result. Barbiturates area unit renowned to induce hyperalgesia, i.e. aggravation of pain and for wakefulness attributable to pain, if barbiturates area unit used, additional pain and additional disorientation would follow resulting in drug automation and eventually a "pseudo"suicide. Such reports dominated the medical literature of Sixties and 1970s; a reason commutation the barbiturates with benzodiazepines once they became accessible.


Ecotoxicology is that the study of the results of cyanogenetic chemicals on biological organisms, particularly at the population, community, scheme level. Ecotoxicology could be a multidisciplinary field, that integrates materia medica and ecology. The ultimate goal of this approach is to be able to predict {the results|the consequences|the results} of pollution in order that the foremost economical and effective action to stop or remedy any prejudicial effect are often known. In those schemes that area unit already wedged by pollution ecotoxicological studies will inform on the most effective course of action to revive ecosystem services and functions expeditiously and effectively.


In rhetorical bugology, entomotoxicology is that the analysis of poisons in arthropods (mainly flies and beetles) that prey on carrion. exploitation arthropods during a clay or at a criminal offense scene, investigators will confirm whether or not toxins were gift during a body at the time of death. this method could be a major advance in forensics; antecedently, such determinations were not possible within the case of severely rotten bodies destitute of intoxicated tissue and bodily fluids. in progress analysis into the results of poisons on invertebrate development has additionally allowed higher estimations of postmortem intervals.

Dose-response Relationship

The dose-response relationship, or exposure–response relationship, describes the amendment in result on associate degree organism caused by differing levels of exposure (or doses) to a agent (usually a chemical) when a precise exposure time.[1] this might apply to people (e.g.: alittle quantity has no vital result, an outsized quantity is fatal), or to populations (e.g.: what percentage folks or organisms area unit affected at completely different levels of exposure). Dose–response relationships usually rely on the exposure time and exposure route (e.g., inhalation, dietary intake); quantifying the response when {a completely different|a special|a unique|a distinct} exposure time or for a distinct route results in a distinct relationship and presumably different conclusions on the results of the agent into account. This limitation is caused by the quality of biological systems and also the usually unknown biological processes operational between the external exposure and also the adverse cellular or tissue response.

Medical materia medica

Medical materia medica, could be a medical subspecialty specializing in the diagnosing, management and bar of poisoning and different adverse health effects attributable to medications, activity and environmental toxicants, and biological agents. Medical toxicologists area unit concerned within the assessment and treatment of acute or chronic poisoning, adverse drug reactions (ADR), overdoses, envenomations, and abuse, and different chemical exposures.


An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is associate degree injury caused by taking a medicine. ADRs might occur following one dose or prolonged administration of a drug or result from the mixture of 2 or additional medicine. The that means of this expression differs from the that means of "side effect", as this last expression may also imply that the results are often useful. The study of ADRs is that the concern of the sphere referred to as pharmacovigilance. associate degree adverse drug event (ADE) refers to any injury occurring at the time a drug is employed, whether or not or not it's known as a reason behind the injury.


A poison could be a poison created among living cells or organisms, artificial toxicants created by artificial processes area unit so excluded. Toxins are often tiny molecules, peptides, or proteins that area unit capable of inflicting illness on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules like enzymes or cellular receptors. Toxins vary greatly in their severity, starting from typically minor (such as a bee sting) to presently deadly (such as eubacterium toxin).


Neurotoxins area unit substances that area unit toxic or damaging to nervous tissue.Neurotoxins area unit an intensive category of exogenous chemical neurologic insults which will adversely have an effect on perform in each developing and mature animal tissue. The term also can be wont to classify endogenous compounds, which, once abnormally contact, will prove neurologically cyanogenetic. although neurotoxins area unit usually neurologically damaging, their ability to specifically target neural elements is very important within the study of nervous systems. Common samples of neurotoxins embody lead, plant product (drinking alcohol), atomic number 25 salt, gas (NO), neurolysin (e.g. Botox), tetanus poison, and tetrodotoxin. Some substances like gas and salt area unit in reality essential for correct perform of the body and solely exert toxin effects at excessive concentrations.


Hemotoxins, haemotoxins or hematotoxins area unit toxins that destroy red blood cells (that is, cause hemolysis), disrupt curdling, and/or cause organ degeneration and generalized tissue injury. The term hemotoxin is to a point a name since toxins that injury the blood additionally injury different tissues. Injury from a hemotoxic agent is commonly terribly painful and may cause permanent injury and in severe cases death. Loss of associate degree affected limb is feasible even with prompt treatment.


An cytotoxin could be a supermolecule toxin free by a organism that targets the intestines. Its target website is indicated among its name. Enterotoxins area unit chromosomally encoded or cellular inclusion encoded exotoxins that area unit created and secreted from many microorganism organisms. they're usually heat-stable, and area unit of low mass and soluble. Enterotoxins area unit ofttimes cytotoxic and kill cells by neutering the top membrane porousness of the tissue layer (epithelial) cells of the viscus wall. they're principally pore-forming toxins (mostly chloride pores), secreted by microorganism, that assemble to make pores in cell membranes. This causes the cells to die.


Bioavailability (BA) could be a subcategory of absorption associate degreed is that the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the circulation, one in all the principal pharmacokinetic properties of medicine. By definition, once a medicine is run intravenously, its bioavailability is 100 percent. However, once a medicine is run via different routes (such as orally), its bioavailability usually TH decreases (due to incomplete absorption and first-pass metabolism) or might vary from patient to patient. Bioavailability is one in all the essential tools in materia medica, as bioavailability should be thought of once hard dosages for non-intravenous routes of administration.

Natural food toxins

Naturally occurring plant toxins, just as manmade pesticides, usually disrupt metabolic processes by blocking certain enzymes. Possible effects range from hallucinogenic to degenerative and mutagenic. Three major groups of natural food toxins are alkaloids, bioactive amines, and fungal toxins. Worth mentioning are also purines, salicylates, pyrrolizidine alkaloids and carrageenan. Fortunately, most of natural food pesticides are intended for much smaller predators, and don't pack enough of a punch to harm humans. However, prolonged use of little known herbal preparations and teas carries the risk of harming your health.


Biodegradation can be considered as a series of steps of biological degradation (or pathway) that ultimately result in the oxidation of the compound which most often results in the generation of energy. Xenobiotics in the body are removed by a process called xenobiotic metabolism. In this process, these compounds are degraded by the liver where the enzymes like cytochrome P450 activate the xenobiotic by the process of oxidation, hydrolysis, reduction or hydration and then, this activated compound conjugates with glucuronic acid, sulphuric acid or glutathione. These are then excreted out of the body by the usual excretion routes of urination, exhalation, sweating and excretion.

Drug metabolism

Drug metabolism is the study of interaction when two different drugs have taken together. It is difficult to diagnosis the reaction which has overcome with drugs at some cases in patients who take with number of medications /self-treatment with over the counter drugs. Treatment for drug interactions like adjustment of low dose .

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