Netherlands Traditional (A) (2 wards, n=51)

Netherlands Small-scale (B) (8 wards, n=51)

Belgium Traditional (C) (2 wards, n=30)

Belgium  Small-scale (D) (4 wards, n=47)

Age in years, M(SD)

83.99 (5.12) C

84.50 (5.86) C

89.09 (5.67) A, B, D

84.52 (7.05) C

Women (%)

34 (67%)

41 (80%)

 25 (83%)

42 (89%)

S-MMSE (0-30) 1

4.96 (5.59)

7.61 (6.26)

8.10 (8.06)

6.07 (5.57)

FTE 2

19.45

11.95

12.67

13.15

Number of residents per unit, n

30 (2 living rooms with 15 residents)

12 (2 living rooms with 6 residents)

30 (2 living rooms with 15 residents)

30 (2 living rooms with 15 residents)

Available hours of care per capita, in hours per week

23.34

35.85

16.05

16.66

Note: F-tests were conducted and letters are assigned to groups in superscripts indicating significantly different pairs (following Bonferroni correction) at the p <.01 level, two-tailed.
1 Higher scores mean better cognitive skills (S-MMSE).
2 FTEs are calculated on the basis of data provided by the nursing homes. A single FTE consists of 36 working hours in the Netherlands and 38 working hours in Belgium. Only nurses and nursing assistants were included (i.e. no medical doctors, physiotherapists, psychologists etc.)

Table 2: Characteristics of residents (N=179) and traditional and small-scale settings in the Netherlands and Belgium.
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