Stratification HVLT,mean (SD)
Study Age, years Education, years Gender, n
Mean (SD) Range Mean (SD) Range Male Female Sample size IR DR
Benedict [13] 24.2    (4.6) 17-30 13.8 (2.1) 8 - 18 46 56 102 29.4 (3.7) 10.6 (1.6)
42.1 (6.5) 31-54 13.8 (1.9) 10 - 20 79 156 235 28.8 (3.8) 10.3 (1.7)
61.9 (4.3) 55-69 13.8 (2.6) 6 - 20 50 79 129 27.5 (4.3) 9.8 (1.8)
75.2 (4.5) 70-88 13.4 (2.9) 5 - 20 25 50 75 25.2 (5.5) 8.7 (2.8)
  60-71   <12 37 30 67 16.9 (3.2) 6.5 (1.5)
  12 11 16 27 18.6 (2.5) 6.7 (1.4)
Friedman [19]   72-84   >12 6 11 17 20.5 (4.7) 6.8 (2.5)
  <12 49 57 106 14.9 (4.2) 5.6 (2.0)
  12 4 11 15 18.5 (3.6) 7.0 (2.0)
  >12 1 4 5 17.8 (5.7) 5.2 (3.1)
60-69   <=10     29 20.0 (5.5) 6.3 (3.3)
  >10     35 2.6 (4.8) 8.4 (2.9)
Hester [15]   70-79   <=10     63 19.4 (5.8) 6.4 (3.5)
  >10     45 20.2 (4.6) 7.3 (2.7)
80-89   <=10     15 17.4 (5.2) 5.4 (3.1)
  >10     16 21.1 (4.6) 5.4 (2.6)
Table 3: Normative data for the HVLT IR and DR performance using age and education strata.
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