Physiological stressor Concentration Degree of induction of ROS**  COX-1***  COX-2***  cPLA2****  Referencest
simvastatin 50 nM 0 - - - 25,26
aspirin 50 nM 0 - - - 27
βAPP 100 nM 0 - - - 13,14,20
Aβ40 10 nM 1 - - - 13,14
Aβ40 50 nM 1 - - - 13,14
Aβ40 100 nM 2 - -/+ -/+ 13,14
Aβ42 10 nM 3 - + - 13,14
Aβ42 50 nM 4 - + -/+ 13,14
Aβ42 100 nM 5 - ++ + 13,14
IL-6 50 nM 5 - -/+ -/+ 32
IL-1β 50 nM 6 - + + 28,33
TNFα 50 nM 6 - + + 35
Aβ42+IL-1β 50 nM (each) 7 - + + 33,36
Aβ42+TNFα 50 nM (each) 7.5 - + + 31,35
Hg 50 nM 1.5 - - - 16,37,39
Cu 50 nM 3 - + - 16,37,40
Zn 50 nM 4 - + + 16,37,41
Mn 50 nM 4.5 - -/+ + 16,38
Fe 50 nM 5 - -/+ + 16,31,37,42
Al 50 nM 9 - ++ ++ 16-19,31,37,42
Al+Fe 50 nM (each) 10 + +++ +++ 16-19,31,37
H2O2 50 nM 10 + +++ +++ 16,31,33
Table 1 Effects of different stressors, at nM concentrations, on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human primary neuronal-glial (HNG) cell cultures, and induced inflammatory consequences as indicated by COX-2 and cPLA2 up-regulation*.
Table 1: *Depends on age of cell cultures and cell type; HNG cells cultured for 2 weeks under optimum growth conditions; each physiological stressor was assayed three times. ** scale of 1-10 based on these 20 evaluations ***detection of cycloxygenase-1 (COX-1), cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) after 3 hrs treatment ****detection of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ) after 3 hrs treatment tReferences quoted here include relevant research on metal-sulfate induced oxidative stress and inflammatory gene expression.
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