Rice paddies Temperature (°C) Dissolved oxygen
(µgl-1)
pH NH4-N (µgl-1) NO3-N (µgl-1) PO4-P (µgl-1) Water depth (m)
Paddy 1 25.4 ± 0.81 a 10.02 ± 1.14a 6.9 ± 0.22a < 0.1a 1.33 ± 0.52 < 0.5a 0.75
Paddy 2 24.8 ± 0.73 a 9.3 ± 1.16a 7 ± 0.10a < 0.1a 1.5 ± 0.55 < 0.5a 0.8
Paddy 3 25.5 ± 0.92 a 10.64 ± 0.52b 7.2 ± 0.3a < 0.1a 1.5 ± 0.54 < 0.5a 0.52
Paddy 4 25.6 ± 0.71 a 9.02 ± 0.86b 6.9 ± 0.23a < 0.1a 1.5 ± 0.55a < 0.5a 0.65

Where values with a were not significantly different and those with b were significantly different at p = 0.05.
Table 1: Mean values of the water parameters of the fish refugia in the rice paddies from 12 March to 9 August 2009.
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