Incubation time Dietin vivo Substratein vitro Tot SCFA1 mg l-1 Ac mg l-1 Pr mg l-1 Bu mg l-1 BC mg l-1 Ac (%) Pr(%) Bu (%) BC (%)
24h Control xylose 888 ± 72 850 ± 70 26 ± 2a 4 ± 2a 5 ± 2 96 3 0 1
    AXOS 943 ± 141 851 ± 112 29 ± 1abc 9 ± 1b 6 ± 1 91 3 1 1
  AXOS xylose 1626 ± 162 1594 ± 158 21 ± 5ab 4 ± 0ab 5 ± 1 98 1 0 0
    AXOS 1145 ± 80 1063 ± 80 52 ± 13c 8 ± 0ab 6 ± 1 93 5 1 1
  Control Fructose 932 ± 35 907 ± 37 10 ± 2a 7 ± 0ab 4 ± 1 97 1 1 0
    OF 850 ± 76 820 ± 72 15 ± 6a 7 ± 1ab 3 ± 1 96 2 1 0
  OF Fructose 1275 ± 427 1246 ± 425 11 ± 4a 7 ± 1ab 5 ± 1 97 1 1 0
    OF 1089 ± 155 1017 ± 151 58 ± 6b 6 ± 0ab 4 ± 1 93 5 1 0
48h Control xylose 3472 ± 287a 3419 ± 286a 52 ± 2a 2 ± 1 0 ± 0 98 2 0 0
    AXOS 949 ± 113b 857 ± 111b 86 ± 5b 5 ± 0 1 ± 0 90 9 1 0
  AXOS xylose 2891 ± 72a 2878 ± 63a 10 ± 10d 2 ± 0 0 ± 0 100 0 0 0
    AXOS 999 ± 71b 903 ± 73b 78 ± 4b 5 ± 0 3 ± 0 90 8 1 0
  Control Fructose 485 ± 35b 481 ± 35b 1 ± 0bd 2 ± 0 0 ± 0 99 0 0 0
    OF 1122 ± 88bc 1018 ± 84bc 99 ± 3b 2 ± 1 0 ± 0 91 9 0 0
  OF Fructose 646 ± 120b 639 ± 119b 2 ± 2bd 3 ± 0 1 ± 0 99 0 0 0
    OF 1694 ± 93c 1552 ± 87c 136 ± 4c 3 ± 1 1 ± 0 92 8 0 0
1Tot SCFA=total short-chain fatty acids (acetic+propionic+butyric+iso-butyric+valeric+iso-valeric+caproic+isocaproic acid; mg l-1); Ac=acetic acid; Pr=propionic acid; Bu=butyric acid; BC=branched-chain SCFA; Ac (%), Pr (%), Bu (%), BC (%)=acetic, propionic, butyric and branched-chain acid as relative proportion to Tot SCFA.
Mean values with different superscripts within the same column and incubation time point differ significantly (p<0.05).
Table 2: Fermentation end-products after incubation of hindgut inocula of African catfish with different substrates for 24 and 48 h.
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