Total
(N = 540)
Completersb
(n = 406)
Non-completersc
(n = 134)
Difference**
 
n
%
n
%
n
%
χ2 (df), p
Gender

 

 

9.53 (1), .002

Female

210

38.9

173

42.6

37

27.6

Male

330

61.1

233

57.4

97

72.4

 

 

 

Primary Substance Use History

 

 

5.20 (5), .393

None

65

12.0

51

12.6

14

10.4

Alcohol

183

33.9

129

31.8

54

40.3

Opiates*

64

11.9

51

12.6

13

9.7

Cocaine

140

25.9

105

25.9

35

26.1

Marijuana

63

11.7

52

12.8

11

8.2

Methamphetamine and related drugs

25

4.6

18

4.4

7

5.2

               
Primary Mental Health Diagnosisa

3.36 (3), .339

None

125

23.1

88

21.7

37

27.6

Mood disorder

301

55.7

227

55.9

74

55.2

Anxiety disorder

77

14.3

63

15.5

14

10.4

Psychotic disorder

37

6.9

28

6.9

9

6.7

               
Pharmacotherapyd

 

 

1.45 (1), .228

Monotherapy

141

26.9

103

25.6

38

31.1

Combination therapy

383

73.1

300

74.4

84

68.9

               
 

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

t (df), p

Age of participant (years)

48.1

11.0

48.3

11.0

47.4

10.9

.833 (536), .405

 

Age at smoking initiation

14.8

4.9

14.9

5.0

14.5

4.7

.739 (532), .460

 

 

 

Importance of quitting

9.0

1.3

9.0

1.3

9.0

1.4

.286 (520), .775

 

 

 

Confidence in quitting

7.3

2.2

7.3

2.3

7.4

2.1

.330 (515), .741

 

 

 

Cigarettes smoked per day

21.0

10.3

21.1

10.6

20.6

9.5

.469 (538), .639

 

 

 

FTNDf at baseline

6.1

2.1

6.1

2.1

6.1

2.0

.325 (532), .746

 

 

 

CO level at baseline

20.7

12.5

20.6

12.1

21.2

13.5

.482 (520), .630

a. The ‘mood disorder’ category includes primarily individuals with depression and bipolar disorder. The ‘anxiety disorder’ category includes individuals primarily with generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and panic disorders. The ‘psychotic disorder’ category includes individuals with a primary past history of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, psychotic disorder.
b. Program completers are individuals who had at least 6 contacts with the Tobacco Dependence Clinic program. The typical program involves 8 weeks (8 contact points) of a closed group therapy session. Individuals could miss no more than two weeks (two contacts) to still have meaningful participation in the program. Of program completers, 8.4% (n =17) had 6 or 7 contacts with the program.
c. Program non-completers are individuals who had engaged in the program for more than two weeks, but had a total of less than 6 contact points (i.e., less than 6 weeks in the program).
d. Pharmacotherapy represents the form of treatment (i.e., monotherapy vs. combination therapy) in the first month of treatment.
e. mean differences between completers and non-completers is expected as, by definition, non-completers did not have more than 6 weeks (6 contacts) with the program.
f. FTND = Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. This is a six-item questionnaire of nicotine dependence, scored on a scale of ‘0’ (low) and ‘10’ (high).
* opiates (i.e., oxycontin, codeine, methadone, heroin)
** differences between groups was based on chi-square analysis for categorical variables and independent sample t-tests for continuous variables.
Table 1: Sample Characteristics.
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