Variables Opiates Sedative-Hypnotics
(n = 88) (n =115)
Age (± SD)** 43.5 ± 11.7 50.4 ± 10.9
Sex  % Male 46.6% 59.1%
Drug Use History    
Age first use primary drug (± SD)** 34.3 ± 13.6 20.9 ± 10.7
Years of problem use (± SD)** 6.8 ± 7 19.7 ± 12
% Using daily (past month)** 97.7% 88.7%
% Using non-oral route of administration** 31.8% 0%
# prior detoxifications (± SD)** 1.4 ± 2.0 2.2 ± 2.2
% with secondary drug problem** 72.7% 53.9%
Medical History    
% with Alcoholic Hepatitis** 2.3% 21.4%
% with Infectious Hepatitis** 23.2% 9.7%
Psychiatric History    
% with Axis I disorders 14.8% 25.2%
% with personality disorder** 62.5% 45.6%
% with Cluster B PD** 42% 21.9%
% with a chronic pain condition** 61.4% 7%
% with chronic pain and a PD** 31.6% 4%
Values represent the group mean (±SD) or % of sample. Groups were compared using independent t-tests or chi-square analysis.
**significantly different, p < .05 corrected for multiple comparisons
Table 1: Selected characteristics of the sample stratified by primary substance of use.
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