Treatment / condition Dose / concentration Species Route of administration Physiological or behavioural effect Primary target Reference
Galanin 1 and 3 nmol Sprague-Dawley rat Microinjection into the third ventricle Increase in voluntary ethanol consumption   [116]
M40 (non-selective galanin receptor antagonist) 1 nmol Sprague-Dawley rat Microinjection into the third ventricle Blocked galanin-induced increased in voluntary ethanol consumption   [116]
Galanin 1 nmol Sprague-Dawley rat Microinjection into the PVN Increase in voluntary ethanol consumption   [126]
M40 (non-selective galanin receptor antagonist) 1 nmol Sprague-Dawley rat Microinjection into the PVN Reversal of galanin-induced increase in voluntary ethanol consumption   [126]
Ethanol 1.0 g/kg Sprague-Dawley rat Intraperitoneal injection Increased galanin peptide mRNA expression Hypothalamic PVN [127]
Ethanol 0.8 g/kg Sprague-Dawley rat Intraperitoneal injection Increased galanin peptide mRNA expression Hypothalamic DMN, PVN, PLH [125]
SNAP 37889 (GALR3 antagonist) 30 mg/kg iP rat Intraperitoneal injection Decreased operant responding for ethanol GALR3 [133]
Co-superfusion of galanin with ethanol 1 µM C57Bl/6J mouse Brain slices in vitro Increased IPSPs in CeA neurons GALR3 [132]
Co-superfusion of galanin with ethanol 1 µM C57Bl/6J mouse Brain slices in vitro Decreased IPSPs in CeA neurons GALR2 [132]
Co-superfusion of galanin with ethanol and SNAP 37889 1 µM; 200nM C57Bl/6J mouse Brain slices in vitro Prevented a galanin-induced increase in IPSPs in CeA neurons GALR3 [132]
Voluntary ethanol consumption 9% v/v (12 hour limited access schedule for 28-30 days) Sprague-Dawley rat Oral Increased galanin peptide expression Hypothalamic PVN [127]
Voluntary ethanol consumption 2% w/w (12 hour limited access for 5 days) Sprague-Dawley rat Oral Increased galanin peptide expression Hypothalamic PVN [128]
Voluntary ethanol consumption 9% w/w (12 hour limited access for 20 days) Sprague-Dawley rat Oral Increased galanin peptide mRNA expression and increased galanin immunoreactivity Hypothalamic PVN, DMN [125]
Voluntary ethanol consumption 15% w/w (ad libitum access; concentration incrementally increased over 16 days) Male GAL-OE mouse Oral Increased voluntary ethanol intake and increased preference for ethanol   [131]
Voluntary ethanol consumption 15% w/w (ad libitum access; concentration incrementally increased over 16 days) Male and female GAL-KO mouse Oral Decreased voluntary ethanol intake and decreased preference for ethanol   [130]
Abbreviations: GAL-KO, Galanin knockout; GAL-OE, Galanin over-expressing.
Table 1: Experimental interactions between galanin, galanin-receptor regulators and alcohol
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