All patients
N=431
Suppressed at study enrollment
N=388
Viremic at study enrollment
N=43
p value
Female 325 (75%) 291 (75%) 34 (79%) 0.56
Age, median in years (range) 38 (21, 64) 38 (21, 64) 36 (25, 60) 0.35
Born in South Africa 414 (96%) 373 (96%) 41 (95%) 0.80
Education        
Never been to school 7 (2%) 6 (2%) 1 (2%) 0.64
Primary school 42 (10%) 39 (10%) 3 (7%)  
Secondary school 357 (83%) 319 (82%) 38 (88%)  
Tertiary school 25 (6%) 24 (6%) 1 (2%)  
In any form of a relationshipa        
Yes 250 (58%) 227 (59%) 23 (54%)  
No 181 (42%) 161 (41%) 20 (46%) 0.53
Months on ART, at study enrollment (range) 45 (13, 152) 45 (13, 152) 45 (13, 55) 0.86
ART regimen        
Efavirenz containingb 393 (91%) 357 (92%) 36 (94%)  
Stavudine containingc 254 (59%) 225 (58%) 29 (67%) 0.35
VL prior to starting ART        
Median copies/mL (range)d 70 870
(1 078, >500 000)
67 315
(2 102, >500 000)
86 718
(1 078, >500 000)
0.48
CD4 prior to starting ART        
Median cells/mm3 (range) 93 (1, 444) 95 (1, 760) 107 (6, 314) 0.34
Mean 96 104 109 0.74
CD4 at study enrollment        
Median cells/mm3(range) 419 (16, 1 270) 437 (119, 1 270) 276 (16, 642) <0.01
Prior exposure to ART        
No 335 (81%) 308 (82%) 27 (68%)  
PMTCT only 45 (11%) 37 (10%) 8 (20%) 0.05f
Othere 35 (8%) 30 (8%) 5 (13%) 0.21
Exposure to sdNVP or other ART vs. no exposuree 80 (19%) 67 (18%) 13 (32%) 0.03f
WHO stage prior to starting ART        
I 61 (21%) 55 (20%) 6 (25%)  
II 86 (29%) 82 (31%) 4 (17%) 0.32f
III 137 (47%) 123 (46%) 14 (58%) 1.00f
IV 9 (3%) 9 (3%) 0 (0%) ---
ART, antiretroviral therapy; VL, virus load; WHO, world health organization, PMTCT, prevention mother-to-child-transmission by administrating a single dose nevirapine;
N, number
aYes: cohabitation, married, sexual relationship, No: Single/divorced/separated/widow
bThe other drug option was nevirapine
cThe other drug option was zidovudine
eVL done using Versant HIV-1 RNA 3.0 (Siemens Deerfield, IL, USA) bDNA technology
eExposure to other antiretroviral drugs prior to ART initiation
f2-sided Fisher exact test
Table 1: Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients
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