Number of DRM
 at study enrollment (n=43)

Persistent virologic failure (n=13) vs. re-suppression (n=12) at follow-up

Risk factor

Odds ratio
(95% CI)a

p-value

Effect
(
difference in median, 95% CI 95% CI)b

p-value

Female vs. Male

5.6 (1.3, 24.5)

0.02

1.1 (0.1, 10.5)

1.00

Age (years)

1.0 (0.9, 1.0)

0.17

1.4 (-6.0, 9.0)

0.62

Current TB therapy (yes/no)c

-

-

0.9 (0, 78.4)

1.00

Tested HIV positive after 2003 (yes/no)

0.4 (0.1, 1.8)

0.23

0.7 (0.1, 5.5)

1.00

Number of months on ART

1.0 (0.9, 1.0)

0.16

2.1 (-1.4, 6.4)

0.17

ARV exposure prior to ART initiationd

 

-

 

0.78

none

 

 

reference

 

pMTCT

---

---

0.3 (0, 4.3)

0.59

Other ARV

---

---

0.8 (0, 70.5)

1.00

Exposure to sdNVP or other ART vs. no exposured

3.8 (1.1, 14.2)

0.03

0.42 (0, 3.8)

0.64

CD4 at study enrollment per 100 cells/mm3

1.7 (1.1, 2.7)

0.02

-0.7 (-1.9, 1.0)

0.41

CD4 pre-ART initiation per 100 cells/mm3

0.8 (0.3, 2.1)

0.64

0 (-0.6, 0.5)

0.98

Log10 (VL) at study enrollmente

0.5 (0.2, 1.0)

0.04

0.4 (-0.2, 1.6)

0.27

Log10 (VL) pre-ART initiatione

1.3 (0.5, 3.4)

0.60

-0.4 (-1.0, 0.2)

0.22

VL >400 copies/mL at least once in the two tests prior to study enrollment (yes/no)e

8.4 (1.9, 42.4)

<0.01

infinity                  (2.4, infinity)

<0.01

Late to the drug refill visit at least 7 days in previous month (yes/no)

0.1 (0, 0.5)

0.01

0.9 (0.1, 8.6)

1.00

History of treatment interruption in the last 6 months (yes/no)c

---

---

infinity                   (0.2, infinity)

0.48

Taking d4T vs. AZT

0.6 (0.2, 1.9)

0.36

0.3 (0, 2.8)

0.38

Taking EFV vs. NVPc

---

---

1.1 (0.1, 17.8)

1.00

≥1 DRM (yes/no)

 

 

5.1 (0.3, 313.7)

0.27

Number of NRTI DRM mutations

 

 

3.7 (1.1, 12.2)

0.05

Number of NNRTI DRM mutations

 

 

2.9 (0.9, 9.0)

0.08

Total number of DRM mutations

 

 

2.4 (1.1, 5.0)

0.04

NRTI, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NNRTI, non-NRTI; VL, virus load; TB, tuberculosis; DRM, drug resistance mutations; d4T, stavudine; AZT, zidovudine; EFV, efavirenz; NVP, nevirapine; ARV, antiretroviral drugs
aFor each 1-unit difference in the covariate (e.g. going from no to yes) the odds ratio expresses (for each possible value of the # DRM (0-7)) the ratio of the odds of having at least that number of DRM versus fewer than that number of DRM.
bEffects presented as the odds ratio for categorical risk factors and the difference in medians for continuous risk factors (difference in median, 95% CI).
cThe ordinal logistic regression model could not be fitted because there was too little variability in the risk factor or the assumption of proportional odds ratios was not met (i.e. only 4 were on TB therapy, 4 had taken other ARV prior to starting ART, 3 had treatment interruption, and the assumption was not met for EFV vs. NVP.
dOne female was exposed to both of sdNVP and other ARV, pre-ART initiation, and she had VL <400 copies/mL at study enrollment.
eVL done using Versant HIV-1 RNA 3.0 (Siemens Deerfield, IL, USA) bDNA technology
Table 3: Risk factors associated with the number of DRM at study enrollment and persistent virologic failure versus re-suppression at follow-up
Goto home»