Study name and year of publication Country of study Study design Period of observation Population sample Source of SES data Measure of association SES variable Reported value of the association measure  
Pre-HAART period  
1.Chaisson et al. 1995 [70] USA Prospective cohort 1989-1994 1372 HIV-infected patients Self-report Crude RR Income Employment Education 0.98 (0.78-1.22) 0.77 (0.67-0.89)* 1.15 (0.92-1.43)  
2.Palombi et al. 1997 [71] Italy Prospective cohort 1992-1994 168 PWA Self-report Crude RR SER index 1.02 (p-value=.8)  
3.Katz et al. 1998[72] USA Retrospective cohort 1985-1995 18,167 PWA Census block group HR adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, risk group, site & period of AIDS diagnosis, clinical variables Poverty Working class Education 1.03 (0.97-1.08) 1.03 (0.98-1.08) 0.96 (0.9-1.01)  
4.Lee & Rotheram-Borus  2001 [73] USA Prospective cohort 1993-1995 307 HIV-infected parents of adolescent children Self-report Crude RR Education Financial status Social support 1.43 (1.01-2.07)* 1.51 (0.90-2.54) 0.77 (0.64-0.93)*
Studies comparing pre-HAART and post-HAART periods
5. Rapiti et al. 2000 [74] Italy Retrospective cohort 1993-1995 & 1996-1998 1,474 PWA Census block HR adjusted for age, gender, CD4 count at diagnosis, risk factor, AIDS-defining illness, center of diagnosis SES index 1.08 (0.83-1.38) (1993-1995) 2.67 (1.28-5.6)* (1996-1998)
6.McFarland et al. 2003 [35]  USA Retrospective cohort  1980-1995 & 1996-2001 2918 HIV-infected patients Census block HR adjusted for  age, CD 4 count, IDU status, HAART Income 0.99 (0.98-1.00) (1980-1995) 0.93 (0.86-1.01) (1996-2001)
Post-HAART period
7. Lieb et al. 2002 [74] USA Retrospective case-control 1999 120 HIV-infected cases who died 240 HIV-infected controls alive Self-report Crude OR Living situation Homelessness Insurance (Medicaid vs. Ryan White) 2.70 (1.45-5.02)* 2.93 (1.20-7.15)* 3.09 (1.75-5.46)*
8. Wood et al. 2002 [75]  Canada Prospective cohort 1996-2000 1408 HIV-infected Census track RR adjusted for age, ART adherence, history of IDU, CD4 count, viral load, baseline AIDS Income 2.03 (1.32-3.12)*
9. Young et al. 2004 [76] Switzerland Prospective cohort 2002 3736 HIV-infected patients Self-report HR adjusted for age, sex, transmission group, viral load, CD4 count, disease stage, ART, education. Stable partnership 0.59 (0.44-0.79)*
10.Cunningham et al. 2005 [77]  USA Prospective cohort 1996-2000 2864 HIV-infected patients Self-report HR adjusted for age, gender, CD4 count, risk factor, homelessness, region of receiving care, clinical stage, ART Wealth (none vs. $50,000) Income ($10,000 vs. $25,000) Education (no high school degree) Unemployment Insurance (none vs. private) Homelessness 1.81 (1.09-3.00)* 0.78 (0.56-1.08) 1.52 (1.14-2.02)*   1.44 (1.07-1.95)* 0.62 (0.44-0.88)* 0.99 (0.7-1.4)
11.Kozinetz et al. 2005 [78]  Romania Prospective cohort 1999-2001 333 HIV-infected children Self-report HR adjusted for AIDS at baseline Education: Father’s Mother’s Unemployment 0.4 (0.2-0.8)* 0.3 (0.1-1.0) 3.6 (1.1-11.5)*
12. Palange et al. 2005 [79]  Italy Retrospective cohort 1996-2002 1,368 PWA Census track HR adjusted for age, gender, risk factor, period and hospital of diagnosis, CD4 count, AIDS-defining illness SES level Income 1.09 (0.77-1.54) 1.38 (0.96-1.98)
13.Jain et al. 2006 [80] USA Retrospective cohort 1996-2002 5007 PWA Medical record HR adjusted for HAART use, OI at AIDS diagnosis, age, race, risk factor Insurance (private vs. public) 0.55 (0.5-0.6)
14.Delpierre et al. 2008 [81]  France Prospective cohort 1996-2006 6805 HIV-infected patients Self-report HR adjusted for period of HIV diagnosis, medical center, age, risk factor, ART Unemployment 3.75 (2.11-6.6)*
15.Liotta et al. 2008 [82]  Italy Prospective cohort 1994-2005 & 1996-2005 382 HIV-infected patients 161 HIV-infected patients Self-report  Crude RR RR adjusted for clinical staging, CD4 count Housing Education SEI 1.91 (1.15-3.17)* 0.71 (0.58-0.87)* 4.14 (1.28-13.4)*
16. Joy et al. 2008 [83]  Canada Prospective cohort 1997-2005 2168 HIV-infected patients Census track Crude HR HR adjusted for age, CD4 count, viral load, adherence, late access to ART Unemployment Income Poverty Education 1.53 (1.28-1.78)* 0.95 (0.94-0.97)* 1.07 (1.01-1.13)* 0.80 (0.71-0.91)*
17.McDavid-Harrison et al. 2008 [84]  USA Prospective-retrospective cohort 1996-2006 HIV-infected 174,569 men  & 74,128 women Census county level RR adjusted for time from HIV diagnosis, age, race/ethnicity, risk factor, CD4 count, AIDS Poverty: for men for women   1.3 (1.16-1.47)* 1.77 (1.43-2.20)*
18.Chen et al. 2009 [85] USA   1996-2004 PWA 266 cases & 1173 controls Medical records  OR adjusted for age, year of diagnosis, stage of disease, year of HAART initiation & regimen Insurance (public vs. private) 2.80 (1.77-4.42)*
19.Druyts et al. 2009 [86]  Canada Prospective cohort 1997-2005 533 HIV-infected patients Census track Crude HR Unemployment Education Income 2.2 (1.67-2.89)* 0.6 (0.5-0.73)* 1.29 (1.17-1.42)*
20.Silverberg et al. 2009 [87]  USA Retrospective cohort 1996-2005 4686 HIV-infected patients Census track Medical record Crude HR Education Income Insurance 0.85 (0.62-1.15) 0.78 (0.53-1.15) 1.78 (1.28-2.48)*
21. Arnold et al. 2009 [88]  USA Prospective-retrospective cohort 1996-2006 4211 PWA Census zip code HR adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, CD4 count, risk factor, ART initiation Neighborhood socioeconomic context Insurance (private vs. none) 0.85 (0.67-1.07)   0.65 (0.52-0.8)*
* Statistically significant association
Abbreviations: ART: Antiretroviral Therapy; HAART: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy; HARS: HIV/AIDS Reporting System; IDU: Intravenous Drug User; PWA: Persons
with AIDS; SEI: Socioeconomic Index; SER Index: Socioeconomic Resource Index; Adj: Adjusted; HR: Hazard Ratio; Het: Heterosexual; Lev: Level of SES; MSM: Men
Who Have Sex with Men; OR: Odds Ratio; RR: Relative Risk
Table 1: Characteristics of the selected studies.
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