On ART

ART naïve

Lipohypertrophy Lipoatrophy Lipodystrophy Lipohypertrophy Lipoatrophy Lipodystrophy
Age (years)            
18-34 127 (51.2) 136 (54.8) 187 (75.4) 84 (37.7) 104 (46.6) 147 (65.9)
35-49 208 (47.5) 265 (60.5) 349 (79.7) 58 (37.9) 64 (41.8) 99 (64.7)
50-78 74 (57.4) 73 (56.6) 109 (84.5) 19 (38.8) 18 (36.7) 29 (59.2)
P value 0.13 0.3 0.11 1.0 0.4 0.7
Gender            
Male 167 (39.8) 248 (59.0) 327 (77.9) 75 (36.1) 90 (43.3) 138 (66.3)
Female 242 (61.3) 226 (57.2) 318 (80.5) 86 (39.6) 96 (44.2) 137 (63.1)
P value <0.001 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.8 0.5
Education (years)            
0-4 116 (53.0) 136 (62.1) 183 (83.6) 28 (27.5) 56 (54.9) 66 (64.7)
5-8 151 (49.2) 199 (64.8) 252 (82.1) 71 (44.9) 74 (46.8) 114 (72.2)
9-11 96 (49.0) 101 (51.5) 145 (74.0) 42 (36.5) 40 (34.8) 67 (58.3)
≥12 46 (49.5) 38 (40.9) 65 (69.9) 20 (40.0) 16 (32.0) 28 (56.0)
P value 0.8 <0.001 0.007 0.04 0.006 0.06
Skin color            
Caucasian 185 (53.2) 234 (67.2) 297 (85.3) 78 (42.9) 87 (47.8) 127 (69.8)
Non-Caucasian 224 (48.0) 240 (51.4) 348 (74.5) 83 (34.2) 99 (40.7) 148 (60.9)
P value 0.14 <0.001 <0.001 0.07 0.15 0.06
Smoking (pack-years)            
0 160 (58.8) 150 (55.1) 215 (79.0) 61 (40.7) 52 (34.7) 89 (59.3)
1-19 144 (46.6) 182 (58.9) 242 (78.3) 67 (35.4) 83 (43.9) 120 (63.5)
≥20 105 (44.9) 142 (60.7) 188 (80.3) 33 (38.4) 51 (59.3) 66 (76.7)
P value 0.002 0.4 0.8 0.6 <0.001 0.02
Physical activity (min/week)            
≥150 179 (50.9) 276 (59.6) 367 (79.3) 94 (37.2) 121 (47.8) 168 (66.4)
<150 230 (49.7) 198 (56.3) 278 (79.0) 67 (39.0) 65 (37.8) 107 (62.2)
P value 0.7 0.3 0.9 0.7 0.04 0.4
Body mass index (kg/m2)            
<18.5 3 (11.1) 27 (100.0) 27 (100.0) 1 (9.1) 11 (100.0) 11 (100.0)
18.5-24.9 170 (36.5) 298 (63.9) 355 (76.2) 49 (24.0) 109 (53.4) 134 (65.7)
25-29.9 156 (67.2) 104 (44.8) 181 (78.0) 64 (43.2) 48 (32.4) 82 (55.4)
≥30.0 80 (88.9) 45 (50.0) 82 (91.1) 47 (75.8) 18 (29.0) 48 (77.4)
P value <0.001 <0.001 0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.001
Time since diagnosis of HIV infection (years)            
<3 108 (51.2) 113 (53.6) 160 (75.8) 98 (35.8) 121 (44.2) 170 (62.0)
3-5 128 (50.0) 138 (53.9) 196 (76.6) 41 (43.6) 36 (38.3) 63 (67.0)
≥6 173 (49.9) 223 (64.3) 289 (83.3) 22 (38.6) 29 (50.9) 42 (73.7)
P value 1.0 0.01 0.048 0.4 0.3 0.2
Viral load (copies/mL)            
<50 272 (55.7) 270 (55.3) 390 (79.7) 8 (40.0) 9 (45.0) 11 (55.0)
≥50 134 (41.7) 200 (62.3) 250 (77.9) 148 (37.8) 169 (43.1) 255 (65.1)
P value <0.001 0.049 0.5 0.8 0.9 0.4
CD4 (cells/mm3)            
≥350 242 (53.7) 256 (56.8) 356 (78.9) 130 (43.3) 131 (43.7) 197 (65.7)
200-349 114 (53.0) 126 (58.6) 175 (81.4) 21 (26.3) 30 (37.5) 48 (60.0)
<200 51 (35.2) 90 (62.1) 111 (76.6) 7 (19.4) 19 (52.8) 24 (66.7)
P value <0.001 0.5 0.5 0.001 0.3 0.6
Dyslipidemia*            
Yes 226 (52.4) 239 (55.5) 339 (78.7) 68 (38.4) 76 (42.9) 117 (66.1)
No 181 (47.9) 230 (60.8) 300 (79.4) 91 (38.1) 105 (43.9) 152 (63.6)
P value 0.2 0.12 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.6
Use of lipid-lowering treatment            
Yes 15 (57.7) 16 (61.5) 22 (84.6) 1 (33.3) 2 (66.7) 2 (66.7)
No 394 (49.9) 458 (58.0) 623 (79.0) 160 (37.9) 184 (43.6) 273 (64.7)
P value 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.9 0.4 0.9
Table 2: Distribution of characteristics associated with lipohypertrophy, lipoatrophy, and lipodystrophy in HIV-infected patients according to ART treatment status [n (%)].
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