Lipohypertrophy Lipoatrophy Lipodystrophy
Model 1* Model 1f Model 1
Gender      
Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 1.58 (1.37–1.82) 0.92 (0.82–1.03) 1.02 (0.95–1.10)
P value <0.001 0.16 0.5
Age (years) 1.01 (1.00 – 1.01) 1.00 (1.00–1.01) 1.004 (1.00–1.01)
P value 0.06 0.9 0.04
Skin color      
Caucasian 1.00 1.00 1.00
Non - Caucasian 1.07 (0.94–1.23) 1.26 (1.12–1.41) 1.13 (1.05–1.21)
P value 0.3 < 0.001 < 0.001
Education (years) 1.01 (0.99 – 1.02) 0.97 (0.96 – 0.99) 0.99 (0.98 – 0.99)
P value 0.4 <0.001 0.03
  Model 2** Model 2f Model 2
Smoking (pack–years)      
0 1.00 1.00 1.00
1-19 0.81 (0.68–0.97) 1.06 (0.92–1.21) 1.00 (0.92–1.08)
≥20 0.81 (0.70–0.95) 1.07 (0.93–1.25) 0.99 (0.91–1.09)
P value 0.01 0.6 1.0
Physical activity (min/week)      
≥150 1.00 1.00 1.00
<150 1.05 (0.91–1.20) 0.96 (0.86–1.08) 1.01 (0.94–1.08)
P value 0.5 0.5 0.9
  Model 3*** Model 3ff Model 3
Body mass index (kg/m2) 1.07 (1.06–1.09) 0.96 (0.95–0.98) 1.007 (1.00–1.01)
P–value <0.001 <0.001 0.04
CD4 (cells/mm3)      
≥350 1.00 1.00 1.00
200-349 1.11 (0.96–1.28) 0.99 (0.87–1.13) 1.02 (0.95–1.11)
<200 0.83 (0.67–1.05) 0.98 (0.85–1.13) 0.95 (0.86–1.05)
P value 0.049 1.0 0.4
Viral load (copies/mL)      
<50 1.00 1.00 1.00
≥50 0.78 (0.67–0.91) 1.04 (0.93–1.16) 0.96 (0.89–1.04)
P value 0.001 0.5 0.3
Time since diagnosis of HIV infection (years)      
<3 1.00 1.00 1.00
3-5 1.02 (0.87–1.22) 0.97 (0.82–1.14) 1.01 (0.91–1.12)
≥6 1.11 (0.95–1.29) 1.18 (1.02–1.37) 1.12 (1.02–1.22)
P value 0.4 0.005 0.01
* Adjusted for gender and age
** Adjusted for gender, age, and smoking status
*** Adjusted for gender, age, smoking status, BMI, CD4, and viral load
fAdjusted for gender, skin color and education
ffAdjusted for gender, skin color, education, time since HIV diagnosis, and BMI
Adjusted for age, skin color, and education
Adjusted for age, skin color, education, time since HIV diagnosis, and BMI
Table 3: Risk factors for lipodystrophy in HIV – infected patients on antiretroviral treatment  (risk ratio and 95% CI)
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